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高二英语下知识点总复习教案doc预览

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高二英语Unit11 Scientific achievements知识点总复习教案
Section I 课前准备、听力、口语
1. Solar energy 太阳能。(p.1 Warming Up最后●)
 energy
 1) n. [U] 精力;活力 Young people usually have more energy than the old. 年轻人通常比老年人有活力。
 2) n. [U]能,能量atomic energy原子能
辨析:force,power,energy,strength与might
 * force力;指活动的力,是strength所展示出来的力;常被作"势力"用。* power力;用途最广,用于各种身的、心的、隐藏的、外显的力,和strength同义,但暗示能动的意思。* energy在物理学上指"能";精力,活力。* strength体力;是内部的力,是在身体组织内存在的体力。 * might力;势力;强有力的力。You must use force to open that bottle. 你必须用力打开那个瓶子。/ Some animals have the power to see in the dark. 有些动物具有在黑暗中能看见东西的本领。/ To everyone's surprise, the old painter seemed to have more energy after his recovery from his serious illness than even the young. 使大家感到惊讶的是这位老画家在重病复原后似乎比青年人精力还要充沛些。/ I haven't the strength to lift the table. 我没有力气抬这张桌子。/ It's beyond your might. 此事非你力所能及。
 联想:energetic adj. 精力充沛的,积极的; energize vt. 使活跃,给予精力,加强; energizer n. 抗抑制剂;情绪兴奋剂
2. That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind. 这对一个人来说是一小步,但对人类而言却是一大步。(p.2 Words 第一行)/ You are working on sending a manned spaceship to Mars. 你正在从事发射载人飞船上火星的工作。(p.2 Speaking Dr Winfey)
 1)男人[C] In many countries in the world, men kiss each other when they meet. 在世界上许多国家里,男人们会晤时彼此亲吻。
 2)人类[U](前面不用冠词) Man must make the earth support more people. 人类必须使地球养活更多的人。
 3) vt. 操纵;给......配备人员Ten workers were assigned to man the production line. 十名工人被派到生产线上进行操作。
 4) manned adj. 载人的,由人操纵的。
 联想:mankind人类; manner n. 方法、举止; manual adj. 手工的、体力的; manly 有男子气概的;刚强的; man-made人造的
3. You and your team are working on a cure for AIDS.你和你的队员们正在进行艾滋病治疗。(p.2 Speaking / Dr Wilson)
辨析:work on与work at
 * work on从事某项工作(创造、创作、作画、制订、设计、草拟、研究......)。
 * work at学习;研究;致力于;在......下功夫。
I'm working at my study. 我正在努力学习。/ He is working on a new dictionary. 他正在撰写一部新词典。
4. You want to develop new technology that will make it possible to grow food in areas where there is very little water. 你想发展新的技术,使得在没有水的地方生长食物成为可能。(p.2 Speaking 'Dr Smith')
* make的复合结构
 1) make+宾语+名词使......In 1849, Marx went to England and made London the base for his revolutionary work. 1849年,马克思到了英国,把伦敦作为从事革命工作的基地。
 2) make+宾语+形容词使... They have made their home-town rich. 他们已使家乡富有了。/ The policemen have made it clear that he is a thief. 警察已弄清楚他是个贼。
* 注意:上句it作为形式宾语代替后面that引导的从句。
 3) make sb. do sth. 使某人做某事 The boss made him work 10 hours a day. 老板让他每天工作十小时。
 4) be made to do sth. 被迫做某事 The workers were made to work 10 hours a day. 工人们每天被迫工作十小时。
 5) make + 宾语 + 过去分词使某人/某事被......
She couldn't make herself heard. 别人听不到她的话。
5. If I got the money, I would...要是我得到钱。我会...... (p. 3 Useful expressions 左1)
 1) 本句为虚拟结构,表示与现在事实相反的假设,从句用一般过去式,主句为would (或should,could,might) + 动词原形 If I know the answer to the question, I should (would) tell you.如果我知道问题的答案,我会告诉你的。
 2) 虚拟条件句中be的过去式一般为were。If I were you, I couldn't accept her suggestion. 如果我是你,我不会接受她的建议。
6. I'd like... (=I'd love to...;反义词组:I'd hate to...) 我想要...... (p.3 Useful expressions 右2)
 本句型是should like或would like的缩略式,常用来表示"愿意",尤其是礼貌地提出邀请或愿意提供帮助时。like后可接名词或带to的动词不定式,但不接动词-ing形式。
 1) would like to do sth愿意做某事 -- Would you like to go to the cinema with me tomorrow ? 明天你愿意和我一起去看电影吗? -- Yes, I'd love to. (to不能省略掉) 是的,我愿意去。注意:其否定式为would like not to do sth.
 2) would like (sb.) to do sth. I would like Tom to do it at once. 我想要汤姆立刻去做这件事。
 3) would like sth. 要什么东西 Would you like some bread or coffee? 你想要些面包还是喝咖啡?
Section II 阅读
7. Whatever great achievements the future may have in store for China, it is 1ikely that many of them will be born in northwestern Beijing. 无论中国将来会有什么样的伟大成就,其中许多很有可能会诞生在北京的西北部。(p.3 第一段1-2行)
 1) be likely to do sth. 很可能(发生某种情况) Our team is likely to win the game. 这场比赛我们队很可能赢。
 2) It is likely that + 从句 It is likely that we'll go on a picnic in the forest tomorrow. 很可能明天我们去森林里野餐。
 辨析:likely,probable与possible:
 * likely系常用词,指"从表面现象看很有可能"。
 * possible指"由于有适当的条件和方法,某事可能发生或做到",强调"客观上有可能",但"实际希望很小"。
 * probable语气比possible强,指"有根据、合情理、值得相信的事物,带有'大概'、'很可能'"的意思。
 * likely之后常跟不定式 (be likely to do sth.),而possible,probable之后通常不跟不定式;likely的主语可以是人,而possible,probable的主语不能是人。
The hurricane is likely to come. 飓风可能要来。/ It is possible to go to the moon now. 现在有可能登上月球。/ I don't think the story is probable. 我不认为这个故事合情合理。
 联想:likely; friendly; fatherly; motherly; sisterly brotherly; manly; lovely; lively; lonely; orderly
8. Zhongguancun was set up as a special economic zone in the late 1990s and... 中关村是20世纪90年代末建成的经济特区... (p.3 第二段 第1-2行)
1) set up: (1) 竖立起来 Let's set up the tent first. 我们先把帐篷搭起来。(2) 建立,成立 Edison set up a chemical lab of his own at the age of ten. 爱迪生10岁就建立了他自己的化学实验室。(3) 使(自己或他人)从事某职业 (as) He has set himself up as a bookseller. 他开始经营书籍。
 辨析:set off与set out
 set off与set out这两个动词短语都有"出发"和"动身"的意思,都可以解释为start to move或begin a journey。
 set off的原意是"使爆炸" (cause to explode);set out的原意是"着手做" (begin work with the intention of achieving a particular aim)。
 注意:set out在用来表示"着手做"时,后面总是跟动词不定式。The slightest spark can set off the explosives stored here. 一点点火星就能够使储存在这里的火药爆炸。/ The journalist immediately set out to obtain these important facts, but he took a long time to send them. 那位新闻记者立即着手去获得这些重要的资料,但是他把这些资料寄来却用了很长时间。
拓展: set about着手(开始)做; set an example树立榜样; set apart留出,拔出; set fire to点燃,生火; set foot in (或on) 登上;涉足;访问
 2) as用法小结
 (1) as用作连词
 ① 作"当......的时候"解,引导时间状语从句,表示从句动作与主句动作同时发生、同时进行。As he looked at her she made a face. 他看她时,她作了个鬼脸。/ He sang as he walked. 他一边走,一边唱。
 ② 作"由于"、"因为"解,引导原因状语从句,表示比较明显的原因。由as引导的原因从句通常放在主句之前。As he didn't know much English,he got out his dictionary and looked up the word. 由于他不懂得多少英语,他拿出来词典查了这个词。
 ③ 作"如 (不如)......一样"解,引导方式状语从句或比较状语从句。He does not speak as the other people do. 他不像其他人那样肯说话。He is not so diligent as you. 他不如你勤奋。(so...as...只用于否定句。若为肯定句必须用as...as...)
 ④引导让步状语从句时,作"虽然"、"尽管" 解,这时,要将表语或状语提到主语之前,使句子部分倒装。如果表语是名词,放在句首时不能加冠词。Young as he is, he knows a lot. 尽管年轻,他懂得很多。Old man as he is, he still works hard. 尽管他是个老人,他仍然工作很努力。
 (2) as用作代词
 ① 作关系代词,引导限制性定语从句,先行词前常有such,the same与之呼应,构成such...as,the same (...) as...。We'll make such computers as are needed in different branches of science. 我们将制造出科学的各部门所需要的那种计算机。/ I'm reading the same books as you. 我读的书与你读的书相同。
 ②引导非限制性定语从句,as常常作主语、定语、表语等,在这种情况下as指的是前面或后面的整个句子。The two cities are far away from each other, as you can see in the map. 正如你在地图上看见的那样,这两座城市相距甚远。/ As everybody knows, all that glitters is not gold. 大家都知道,闪光的东西不都是金子。
 3) as if (as though) 用作连词,作"就像...似的""仿佛"解 (1) as if (as though)引起的方式状语从句或表语从句中动词一般用虚拟语气, be通常为were或was。如从句动作与主句动作同时发生,从句用一般过去时;若从句动作在主句动作之前发生,从句用过去完成时。Jane shouted in surprise as if she saw the land. 珍妮惊喊着,好像看见了陆地。/ Tom is talking about China as if he had been there. 汤姆正在谈着中国,好像他去过一样。
 (2)若主句谓语动词为look,seem,taste,smell等词时,as if引导的表语从句常常使用陈述语气。 It looks as if it is going to rain. 看起来天好像耍下雨。/ This meat tastes as if it has already gone bad. 这肉尝起来好像已变坏了。
 (3)当从句中主语和句子主语一致,从句谓语又包含动词be时,这个主语和be可以省略。He glanced about as if (he was) in search of something. 他四处打量着好像在搜寻什么。
 (4) as if (as though)可以接一个不定式短语。He waved his hand to me as if to have something to tell me. 他向我挥了挥手好像有事要告诉我。
 辨析:as,when与while
 as,when,while作为连词,都有"当......的时候"的意思。* as常可与when或while通用,但它较强调主句和从句中的动作或事情同时发生。因此,常作"一面......一面......"解。 * while常表示一段较长的时间或一个过程,强调主句的动词和从句的动词所表示的动作或状态是同时发生的。用while引导的从句中用延续性动词。
As (When/While) I was walking down the street, l noticed a police car in front of Number 37. 我沿着大街往前走的时候,注意到37号门前停着一辆警车。/ When the clock struck twelve, all the lights went out. 钟敲12下时,灯全熄了。/ When I went into the lab, the professor was doing an experiment. 当我走进实验室时,那位教授正在做实验。/ Please keep quiet while others are studying. 别人在学习的时候,请保持安静。/ While I was writing letters last night, he was watching TV. 昨晚我在写信的时候,他在看电视。
 误:As he is old, my teacher works hard.
 正:Old as he is, my teacher works hard.
 尽管我的老师年龄很大了,但是工作很努力。
 误:So as to catch the early bus, he got up very early.
 正:He got up very early so as to (in order to) catch the early bus. 他起早是为了赶早班车。
 拓展:as a matter of fact实际上; as a result (of)结果; as far as就......而言;远至as follows如下as for至于,关于as long as只要; as well as还,也; as to至于,关于; as many as (表可数)和......一样多,达......之多
9. The science park is also home to a growing number of overseas Chinese who have grasped the opportunity to develop their ideas at home. 越来越多的海外华人抓住机会到国内来实现他们的理想。(p.3第三段第1行)
 grasp的用法:(1) 抓住 v. grasp sb. by the arm 抓住某人的胳膊 (2) ([同]understand) 掌握,领会n. grasp sb.'s meaning 懂某人的意思 (3) n. [常用单数]紧握;把握;理解;理解力
 辨析:grasp,grip,seize,snatch与grab
grasp抓紧 / grip紧握;比grasp更强 / seize抓紧;还有"夺过去强占"的含义 / snatch较突然迅速的"掠夺" / grab匆忙,以满有把握的动作抓住某事
 (1) I grasped him by the arm. 我抓住他的手臂。
 (2) The frightened girl gripped her mother's arm. 那受惊的女孩紧抓住她母亲的手臂。
 (3) They seized all the belongings of the peasants. 他们抢走了农民所有的财物。
 (4) The man snatched her bag and ran away. 那人抢了她的包逃跑了。
 (5) Each of you may have a sweet, but don't grab. 你们每人可以吃一块糖,但不要抢。
拓展:beyond sb.'s grasp力量达不到 Grasp all, lose all. [谚]样样都要,全数失掉。within sb.'s grasp力量达得到
10. Zhongguancun made it possible for him to follow his dreams and help the country he loves. 中关村使他有可能实现自己的梦想,同时为他所热爱的国家做出自己的贡献。(p.3 第三段第3-4行) follow:
 (1) vt. 遵照,遵循 Gandhi was married at the age of thirteen, following the local custom. 甘地按照当地的风俗,十三岁就结了婚。
 (2) vt. 听从,服从 The soldiers must follow the officer's orders. 士兵们必须执行军官的命令。
 (3) vt. 明白;懂 He spoke so fast that I could not follow him. 他说得太快,我听不懂他的话。
 (4) vt. 沿着......前进 We followed the road to the top of the hill. 我们沿着这条路走到了小山顶。
 (5) vt. 跟随 The children followed their mother into the
room. 孩子们跟着母亲进了房间。
 The results are as follows ... 结果如下......。
 to follow through a plan 实行计划 That's an interesting idea, and we'll certainly follow it up. 那是一个有意义的想法,我们一定要进一步予以研究。
拓展:as follows如下; follow through完成;把......进行到底; follow up追究,追查;(对......)采取进一步的行动
11. I studied abroad because I wanted to see more of the world and work with some of the top scientists in my field. 我到国外学习是因为我想多看看外边的世界,并在我所学的领域跟一些顶极科学家们一起工作。(p.3第四段 第1行)
 more: (1) n. 较大量,较多量 I'm afraid I've eaten more than enough. 我怕我是吃得过多了。(2) adj. & adv. (many和much的比较级) 更多的(地);较多的(地);更This lesson is more difficult than that one. 这课比那课难些。They have more books than us. 他们的书比我们的多。We have more time than before. 我们比以前有较多的时间。
 拓展:① more and more愈来愈多More and more people are learning how to use computers. 越来越多的人在学如何用计算机。② more or less或多或少,在一定程度上What he has said will be proved more or less right.他说的话或多或少是对的。③ more than多于; ...多She is more than thirty.她三十多岁了。④ no more = not...any more不再He smokes no more. (He didn't smoke any more.) 他不再吸烟了。⑤ no more than仅仅;同......一样不...... The writer wrote no more than two novels. 那位作家仅仅写了两部小说。This book is no more interesting than that one. 这本书和那本一样没趣。⑥ not more than 至多,不超过;不比......更There are not more than five students in the classroom. 教室里至多有五名学生。Lesson 2 is not more difficult than Lesson 3. 第二课不比第三课更难。⑦ once more (=once again) 再一次You'd better try it once more. 你最好再试一次 ⑧ 句型:The more...+主句the more...;The + 比较级... the + 比较级...越......就越...... The more I look at the picture the less I like it. 这张画我越看,我就越不喜欢它。
12. I was so happy. It was wonderful, like a dream come true. 我真高兴,这太棒了,就像梦想成真一样。(p.4 第三段 第1行)
 (1) like doing sth. 喜欢做某事(经常性爱好) I like drawing and collecting stamps. 我喜欢画画和集邮。
 (2) like to do sth. 喜欢做某事(具体的) I like to play football this afternoon. 我今天下午想去踢足球。
 (3) should(would)like to do sth. 想要,愿意 I would like to have some soft drinks. 我想喝些软饮料。
 (4) would(should)like sb. to do sth. 想让某人做某事I would like you to do it now. 我想让你现在做这件事。
注意:口语中like亦可作连词,意为"如同、好像"。如:Do it like I tell you. 照我告诉你的做。
 辨析:as与like
 as和like都用以表示"相像"。as表示"相像"时是介词或连词。as作介词用时可译为"作为",而like则不能。like表示"像"的意思,一般是作为形容词、介词,也可以作为连接词。We united as one. 我们团结得像一个人。Study as Lenin studied. 像列宁那样学习。The work is not so easy as you think. 这个工作不像你想的那么容易。The picture is not at all like. 这张画画得一点不像。He looks like a girl. 他看上去像个女孩子。He can drive the tractor like you do. 他能像你一样开拖拉机。Let me speak to you as a father. 让我以父亲的身份与你讲话。(me是父亲) As your teacher, I think it my duty to point out your mistakes. 作为老师,我认为指出你的错误是我的责任。
13. Not all the new companies can succeed,... 并不是所有的公司都会取得成功,... (p.4最后一段 第2行)
all
 (1) adj. 所有的,全部的,整个的 All the people stand- ing by and those at the windows cried out. 站在街道两旁和窗口的人都叫喊起来。I've never had anybody speak to me that way in all my life. 在我一生中我从未让任何人对我用那种方式讲话。
 (2) pron. 所有的人或东西,一切。作主语指人时,谓语动词用复数;指物时,谓语动词用单数。All the children are busy. 所有这些孩子们都很忙。So all she could d0 was to go back home. 她能做的一切就是回家去。
 (3) all后接定语从句,指物时不能用which,要用that。This is a11 that you want.这就是你要的一切。
 (4) all与否定副词not,never等连用是部分否定,表示"一切......不都是""不是所有的......都......"。Not all the ants go out for food. 不是所有的蚂蚁都出去觅食。
拓展:all day long整天; all kinds of各种各样的; all night long整夜; all one's life某人一生,终身; all over全身,到处; all over the country (world)全国(世界) all the afternoon整个下午 in all总共,总计 after all毕竟,终究
Section III 词汇、综合技能
14. Chinese history is filled with great achievements in science and technology. 中国的历史充满着科技方面的成就。(p.7 第一段 第1行)
 with的复合结构。即with + 宾语 + 宾补
 (1) He likes to sleep with the window open. (adj. 作宾补)他喜欢开着窗户睡觉。
 (2) With her son away from home, she was worried. (adv. 短语作宾补) 由于她的儿子离家出走,所以她很担心。
 (3) She came in with a baby in her arms. (介词短语作宾补) 她抱着孩子进来了。
 (4) With the problem settled, we went on smoothly. (过去分词作宾补) 由于问题得到解决,我们进展顺利。
 (5) With a local guide leading the way, we got there easily. (现在分词短语作宾补) 由于当地向导带路,我们很容易到了那儿。
 (6) With her husband to help her, she worked it out. (不定式作宾补) 由于她丈夫帮助她,她解决了这个问题。
注意:with的复合结构既可以作状语,又可以作定语。
15. In 1995, the Chinese government put forward a plan for "rejuvenating the nation by relying on science and education"... 1995年,中国政府提出了"科教兴国"的规划。(p.7 第一段4-5行)
1) put forward: (1) 提出(意见、建议) He put forward a better plan. 他提出了一个更好的计划。(2) 推荐,提名 Shall we put her forward as the candidate for chair- man of the committee? 我们提名她为委员会主席的候选人好吗?
 拓展:put in打断;插嘴,进港; put off推迟;延期; put on穿;上演; put away放好; put down写下; put on weight发福; put out生产、扑灭
 2) rely vi. (与on,upon连用): (1) 依靠;依赖 rely on one's own efforts 依靠自己的努力(2) 信任;信赖 depend on with confidence You may rely on me. 你可以信赖我。
 辨析:rely与depend
 rely 指"在过去经验的基础上,依赖、相信某人或某事物,希望从中得到支持或帮助"。如:He can be relied On to keep secret. 相信他能保密。
 depend 指"出于信赖而依靠他人或他物,以取得支持或帮助,这种信赖可能有过去的经验或了解为根据,也可能没有"。如:He can depend on his wife for sympathy. 他相信妻子会同情他。
16. When you are writing to persuade the reader,... 当你在写文章说服读者,... (p.8 Tips 第1行)
persuade: (1) vt. 说服 He persuaded her to go to school,even though she did not want to. 即使她不想去上学,他还是说服她去。(2) vt. 使相信(常与of,that连用) I am almost persuaded of his honesty. 我几乎相信他是诚实的。(3) vi. 被说服The boy persuades easily. 这孩子听劝。
 辨析:persuade,convince 与 advise
 persuade和convince意思均为"说服";前者着重情感上的"敦促,劝告",后者着重理智上的"辩论、证明",两者结构相同,即:persuade (或convince) sb. that... ; persuade (或convince sb. of sth. )
 而advise只表"劝说",而不强调其结果如何。He advised her to go, but she didn't. = He tried to persuade her to go, but she didn't. 他建议她去,可她没去。Finally they were persuaded to give up their foolish plans. 最后总算说服了他们放弃了他们愚蠢的计划。
拓展:persuade sb. to do sth. = persuade sb. into doing sth. 说服某人做某事; try/want to persuade sb. to do sth. 试图说服某人做某事; advise sb. to do sth. 劝说某人做某事
语法专题
Section IV 语法 构词法
高二英语Unit12 Fact and fantasy知识点总复习教案
Section I 课前准备、听力、口语
1. Try the quiz below to see if you know any better. 试一试下面的知识检测,看看你是否了解的更多。(P.9 Question 2) if:
 (1) if conj. "是否",在此语境中可用whether 代替。He asked whether / if we wanted a drink. 他问我们是否要喝点饮料。 注意:whether与if (作"是否"解时)都可以连接宾语从句。
 (2) if不能替换whether的5种情况:a. 正式文体中,句中有or not时I wonder whether it is big enough or not. 我想知道它是否足够大。注意:在口语中"if...or not"可接受,但连写的"if or not"是错误的。b. 引导主语、表语、同位语从句时:Whether it is true (or not) remains a question. 它是不是真的还是一个问题。c. 作介词宾语时I haven't settled the question of whether I'll go back home. 我还没决定是否要回家。d. 在不定式前,与不定式组成词组She hasn't decided whether to go or not. 她还没有决定去还是不去。e. 作discuss等词的宾语We discussed whether we should close the shop. 我们讨论是否该关闭那家商店。
 (3) if还有"假如"之意,引导条件状语从句,而此时的条件状语从句,又具体分为两种情况:表示真实条件和表示假设条件,详解如下:
 a. 表示真实条件。"如果" If he told you that, he was lying. 如果他是那样对你说的,他就是在撒谎。If it rains tomorrow, we will stay at home. 如果明天下雨,我们就不出去。
 注意:if条件句要求用一般时表示将来,不用will表示将来,只有在表示"愿意"或"不愿意"时,if后才可以跟will或won't。If you won't come, I'll go alone. 如果你不愿意来,我就一个人去。
 b. 表示假设条件,"假如",用虚拟语气与现在事实相反 If I were you, I would help her. 我要是你的话,我就会帮助她。
 与过去事实相反 If I had not missed the train, I would have got home by now.假如我没误了火车,现在早该到家了。与将来事实相反 If any one should call, please let me know. 万一有人打电话来,请告诉我一声。
 拓展:as if (=as though) 好像(引导方式状语从句或表语从句); even if (=even though) 即使 (引导让步状语从句); if only (引导感叹句,要用虚拟语气)但愿,要......就好了; (引导状语从句,要用虚拟语气) 要是,若是; only if (引导状语从句,用陈述语气)只有
2. What is the highest mountain on earth and how high is it? 世界上最高的山是什么山? 有多高? (P.9 Question 2 No. 1)
Which is the longest river on earth and how long is it? 世界上最长的河是那条? 有多长? (P. 9Question2 No. 3)
 1) What (1) pron. (疑问代词) 什么 What happened next? 后来怎么样了呢? What do you want? 你要什么? (2) pron. (连接代词,引导名词性从句等) 所......的事(或人) What was once regarded as impossible has now become a reality. 过去认为不可能的事现在已成为现实。The city is not what it used to be. 这个城市不再是先前的模样了。
 2) 辨析:what与which
 (1) which既可引导定语从句,又可连接名词性从句;而what不可引导定语从句。
 (2) which,what同为名词性从句的连接代词时,都可在所连接的名词性从句中充当主语或宾语,其区别在意思上。what强调"内容",而which强调从已知的、确定的范围中做出选择。This river, which flows through London, is called the Thames. (which引导非限制性定语从句)这条流经伦敦的河,叫泰晤士河。What book are you going to read? 你要读什么书? Which book are you going to read, this one or that one? 你要读哪一本书,这本还是那本?
 注意:以下句子中常用what。(1) What season do you like best? 你最喜欢什么季节? (2) What day is today? 今天是星期几? (3) What's the date today? 今天是几号?
 联想:somewhat adv. 稍微,有点whatever pron. 无论什么;凡是......的东西
 拓展:What about...? (用于征求意见时)......怎么样(=How about); what if倘使......将会怎么样;即使......又有什么要紧;尽管......又有什么关系; what for为何目的;为什么what is more而且
3. Why does Sam need to know the time. 为什么Sam需要知道时间?(P. 10 Listen- ing Ex. 2 No.1) need:
 (1) n. [U] 缺乏,缺少,需要 There is no need for you to be anxious. 你没必要焦虑的。
 (2) n. [C]必需品 £10 a month will meet my needs. 一个月10英镑可满足我的需要。
 (3) v. 需要 This job needs a lot of care, attention and time. 这工作需要花费很多心思和时间。She likes to feel needed. 她喜欢感觉有人需要她。
 (4) v. aux. (无时态和人称变化;多用于疑问句和否定句;后接没有to的不定式;need not缩写为needn't)需要,必须 -- Need l go? 我必须去吗? -- Yes, you must. (No, you needn't.)是的,你必须去(不,你不必去)。He need not have come last night. 他昨晚本来没必要来的。(但实际来了)
 注意:need not have done表示某一个已经发生的动作实际上不必发生,常译为"不必......也行"等。
 比较:He didn't need to come last night. 他昨晚不必来。(实际上也没有来)
 辨析:need, require与want: (1) 三者后接名词、代词或数词,意思为"要"或"需要"。三者后接被动的不定式或主动的动名词,意思为"需要"或"应该"。(2) need (需要) 和want (想要) 可以接主动的不定式作宾语,而require不可以。(3) require和want可以接复合宾语,而need不可以。(4) require可以接宾语从句,而且从句中的谓语动词必须用"(should+) 动词原形";need和want不可以。(5) need可以作情态动词,而require和want不可以。例如:The work needs / requires / wants patience. 这工作需要耐心。The house needs / requires / wants to be cleaned / cleaning. 这房子需要清扫。He needs / wants to see you. 他要见你。I require / want you to be here this evening. 我请你今晚到这儿来。They require that I (should) appear. 他们要求我出场。You need not write down your translation. 你们不必写下译文。
 联想:(派) needful adj. 需要的,必须的needless adj. 无需的,不必要的needlessly adv. 不需地,无谓地 needy adj. 贫穷的,贫困的
 拓展:at need紧急时; be / stand in need of 需要; if need be / were 如果必要的话; more than needs 超过需要; There is no need for sb. to do sth. 某人做某事是不必要的。
4. ... and talk about what you believe may come true in the future. 谈一谈你认为将来可能实现的事?(P.10 Speaking 第四行)
 (1) link. -v. 成为,变成 His dream came true. 他的梦想实现了。
 (2) come + to do (不定式中的动词多为表示心理活动的动词,如:understand,realize) 终于......;开始......
I hope we'll be friends and come to understand each other.我希望我们成为朋友并逐渐相互理解。He came to realize that he was wrong. 他开始认识到自己错了。
 辨析:get,go,turn与come
 get强调造成事件的施动者发挥的作用或变化的结果。go常常表示不顾施动者的愿望而发生的变化,多用于表示恶化的情况。turn经常表示从某种状态向其对立状态转化的自然现象。come大都表示向好的方面转化。They got married 10 years ago. 他们10年前结的婚。Please don't get angry. 请别生气。The eggs went bad. 鸡蛋坏了。The telephone has gone dead. 电话断了。The weather has turned much colder. 天气变得冷多了。Everything will come right in the end. 最终一切事情总会变好的。
5. Doctors may find a way to keep us young forever. 医生可能会找到一种让我们青春永驻的办法。(P.10 Speaking "Young forever" 第二个A)
 部分名词后接不定式或介词 + 动名词
 1) 在chance,way,opportunity,time等名词后,既可用不定式,又可用"介词 + 动名词"作定语。如:I'd like to have a chance to see / of seeing your teacher. 我想找个机会见一个你们的老师。I'm glad to have the opportunity to talk / of talking to you. 我很高兴能有这个机会跟你谈话。
 2) 在ability,resolution,tendency等名词后,通常用不定式作后置定语。如:Does he have the ability to do the work? 他有做这项工作的能力吗? He has made a resolution to go abroad. 他决心出国。She has a tendency to become fat. 她有发胖的趋势。
 3)当被修饰的普通名词前有序数词修饰时,该名词的后置定语也须用不定式而不是"介词 + 动名词"。Antonio Gaudi is the first one to understand that.安东尼奥是第一个理解那件事的人。He is always the first one to come and the last one to leave. 他总是第一个来,最后一个离开。
 4)而在habit,idea,intention,method,objection等名词后,通常只跟"介词+动名词"作定语。I have the habit of taking a nap after lunch. 我有午饭后睡午觉的习惯。She dismissed the idea of becoming an artist. 她打消了当艺术家的念头。He had no intention of keeping his word. 他不想遵守诺言。We like his methods of teaching English. 我们喜欢他教英语的方法。He had an objection to (prep.) doing it. 他反对做此事。
Section II 阅读
6. By taking the scientific developments of his day one step further,... 通过将他所处时代的科学发展向前推进一步... (P.11 第一段倒数第4-3行)
 by prep. 表手段、方式或原因
 (1) 以......,借助于......,用...... I go to school by bus, but my father goes to office by car. 我乘公共汽车上学,但我爸爸开车上班。I sent the letter by e-mail. 我将那封信以电子邮件寄出。
 (2) 借、靠、因...(置于动名词前,表方法、手段、原因) You can make the cake by mixing eggs and flour. 把鸡蛋和面粉混合,你就可以做出那种蛋糕。He caught (a) cold by playing soccer in the rain. 他因在雨中踢足球而感冒了。
 注意:置于by之后表示交通工具的名词,前面不加冠词,但指特定之物时则须加冠词。He left by the 10:30 train. 他坐10:30的火车走了。
7. He also suggested how inventions could be used in the future to allow man to do things that were consider- ed impossible in his own time. 他还提出将来如何用发明来使人类作出他那个时代被认为是不可能做到的事情。(P. 11 第一段 倒数2行)
suggest:
 1) suggest (1) v. 建议、提议 I suggest finishing now. 我建议现在做完。He suggested a walk. 他提议去散散步。(2) v. 显出 Her yawn suggests that she is sleepy. 她打哈欠表明她困了。Her look suggests that she is very happy.从她的表情可看得出她很高兴。(3) v. 表"建议",后跟宾语从句时,用虚拟语气,从句中谓语动词常用"(should) + 动词原形"。He suggested that the work (should) be started at once. 他建议立即动工。It is suggested that the work (should) be finished as soon as possible. 有人提议那项工作要尽早完成。
 注意:"建议某人做某事"不可用suggest sb. to do sth. 句型,但可用advise sb. to do sth. suggest只有一个宾语。我向他提议我们早点动身去机场。
 误:I suggested him that we leave early for the airport.
 正:I suggested to him that we leave early for the airport.
 提示:表示向某人建议某事用to sb. 置于宾语之后;也可以因强调宾语或句子结构的需要而置于宾语之前,但不可以省去to;类似的动词有:explain解释;announce宣布,通知;report报告,报到。
 补充:suggest(ion)等后用虚拟语气的情况:我们表示"建议""要求""命令""应当做......"这一意义时,suggest等动词后的宾语从句中的谓语常用"(should+) 动词原形";这类动词的字头记忆口诀是:I DROP CAPS,具体为:insist坚持;demand要求,desire要求,请求;request请求,require需要;要求;order命令;propose建议;command命令;ask要求;advise建议;prefer宁愿;suggest建议 (1) 这些动词变被动语态 (如:It is suggested + that主语从句)形式后,主语从句谓语动词仍用"(should+)动词原形"。 (2) 这些动词变名词(如:suggestion)后,其后的表语从句和同位语从句中的谓语部分仍用"(should+)动词原形。" (3) 此类动词不表达"某事必须或很重要"这一意义时,宾语从句中不用虚拟语气。She insisted that she heard somebody in the house. 她坚持说她听到房子里有人。Her expression suggested she was angry. 她的表情表明她很生气。
 2) allow (1) v. 允许,准许 They do not allow smoking here. 他们不允许在这里抽烟。They allowed her to go to the party. 他们允许她去参加聚会。(2) v. 给予,提供(钱或时间) He allows his son ten dollars a month. 他每月给儿子10元钱。Your gift allows me to buy a car. 你的赠礼使我能够买一辆车了。The facts allow no other explanation. 这些事实不容易做解释。
 辨析:allow,permit与let: (1) allow和permit都表示"允许",用法也一样,在许多情况下可以互相换用,只是词义的强弱上有些差别。(2) allow词义较弱,含有"听任""默许""不加阻止"的意思。permit词义较强,强调"正式认可""批准"的意思。let表示"让",词义最弱,较口语化,用法上也不同于allow和permit;在let后面的宾补为不带to的动词不定式;let一般不能用被动语态。That teacher allows too much noise in the classroom. 那位老师听任教室里大声吵闹。Schools do not permit smoking. 学校不准吸烟。The nurse allowed him to remain there, though it was not permitted. 护士让他留在那里,虽然这是(规定)不允许的。Let me help you. 让我帮你吧。
8. ... and it is believed to be caused by a sea monster. 人们认为这是由于一种海中怪兽造成的。(P. 11 第二段第2行) cause:
 (1) v. 导致;成为......的原因;使发生He often causes trouble to / for people. 他常给人们惹麻烦。His illness caused him to miss the game. 他因病不能参加比赛。
 (2) n. [C] 原因,起因Careless is often the cause of fires. 粗心大意常常是火灾的起因。
 (3) n. [C] (人们强烈维护或支持的)原则或运动She fought for the cause all her life. 她一生都在为事业奋斗。
辨析:cause,reason,excuse与grounds
 cause"起因";指引起某种后果的起因。reason"理由,原因";指决定做某一件事或采取某一行动的理由;由此而得出结论或解释。excuse"辩解,借口";指为某一行为所做的解释,可以是真的,也可以是推托之辞。grounds"根据,理由";指有根据的理由。The cause of the accident was the fact that he was driving too fast. 事故的原因是他车开得太快。The reason for my absence was that I was ill. 我没来是因为我生病了。Too much work is no excuse for not studying. 工作太忙不能成为不学习的理由。We have good grounds to believe his story. 我们有充分的理由相信他的话。
9. Dr Aronnax, his servant and a Canadian whale hunter set out to find the monster. 爱瑞纳克斯博士,他的仆人和一位加拿大的猎鲸手出发去寻找这只海怪。(P.11 第二段 倒数第1行) set out:
 (1) 开始,着手 They set out to perform the operation. 他们开始做手术。They set out to work as soon as they arrived. 他们一到就干了起来。
 (2) 启程,动身Half an hour later we set out again on our journey. 半小时之后,我们又启程赶路了。They set out for Rome. 他们动身去罗马。
 比较:(1) set about开始,着手 He set about washing his car. (= He set out to wash his car.) 他开始洗涮汽车。
I'll set about preparing supper. (= I'll set out to prepare supper.) 我要开始准备晚饭了。(2) set off出发、动身 We all set off for New York next Tuesday. (= We all set out for New York next Tuesday.) 下星期二我们将动身去纽约。They have set off on a journey round the world. (=They have set out on a journey round the world.) 他们已出发作环球旅行。
 归纳:set out (1) 动身、出发 (set off) (2) 开始、着手 (= set about) 其中out,off为副词,about为介词。
拓展:set sb. an example = set an example to sb. 为某人树立榜样; set about 着手(开始)做; set aside 存蓄,留出; set fire to 点燃,生火; set foot in / on 登上,涉足;访问; set off 出发,动身; set to work (使)开始干
10. ... the three companions are thrown overboard.三个伙伴都被撞翻到船外。(P.12第一段 第2行)
 overboard: adv.自船边缘落入水中They were thrown overboard when they were on the sea. 他们出海时船翻了。
 辨析:aboard,board,on board与abroad
 aboard adv.在船 (飞机、车)上;上船(飞机、车) / board vt. 上车,上船 / on board 在船 (车等)上,上船 (车等) / abroad adv. 在国外,到国外 The boat is ready to leave. All aboard! 船就要开了,请大家上船。It's time to go aboard. 该上船(火车、飞机)了。
 注意:aboard作副词时只用在动词之后。
 board vt. 上车、上船 Then we boarded the bus and headed for the airport. 然后我们上了汽车向机场开去。What time shall we go on board? 我们什么时候上船(车)?
注意:on board作形容词或副词性短语时,一般作"在船上..." "上船"解。He lives abroad for many years. 他在国外侨居多年。They are sent abroad to work. 他们被派驻国
外工作。
 注意:abroad通常用在行为动词后作状语,用在be动词后作表语。abroad可与from连用,作"从国外"解。
The professor is engaged from abroad. 这位教授是从国外聘来的。
11. In their efforts to survive, they find themselves on the surface of the monster itself,... 在他们努力求生时,却发现自己就在这头怪兽的身体表面。(P.12 第一段2-4行)
 1) effort n. 努力;尽力 He lifted the heavy box without effort. 他毫不费力地举起了那个重箱子。The prisoner made an effort to escape but he failed. 那犯人企图越狱,但没有成功。
辨析:effort,effect,affect与afford
 effect n. 影响、效果 / affect v. 影响 / afford v. 花费得起;买得起;力足以 His stomachache is an effect of overeating. 他因为吃得过量而肚子痛。Smoking affects health. 吸烟影响健康。Since she lost her job, she can't afford to have a car. 自从她下岗以后,就用不起汽车了。I can't afford three weeks away from work. 我不能放下工作外出三个星期。
 拓展:make an effort to do sth. 尽力做....../ redouble one's efforts 加倍努力 / spare no effort(s) to do sth 不遗余力做 / make a good effort 做很大的努力 / make every effort 尽一切努力 / do sth. without effort 毫不费力做
 2) find + 宾语 + 宾语补足语
 (1) find + 宾语 + 宾补 (形容词) We found the prin- ciples easy to understand. 我们发现这些原理很容易理解。
 (2) find + 宾语 + 宾补 (名词) You will find it a difficult book. 你会发现这是本很难的书。
 (3) find + 宾语 + 宾补 (现在分词) He found a number of people already working there. 我发现很多人已经在那里干了。
 (4) find + 宾语 + 宾补 (过去分词) He found the place much changed. 他发现这 地方有了很大变化。
 (5) find + 宾语 + 宾补 (不定式) We found him to be dishonest. 我们发现他不老实。
 (6) find + 宾语 + 宾补 (副词) He hurried there,but found them all out. 他急匆匆赶到那里,但发现大家都出去了。
 (7) find + 宾语 + 宾补 (介词短语) When he woke up, he found himself in hospital. 当他醒过来时,发现自己躺在医院里。
 注意:find后跟随复合结构时,如宾语是不定式,不定式须移至补语之后,宾语位置用it充当。He found it impossible to see her. 他觉得见到她是不可能的。
19. ... and huge glass windows that can be opened and closed give a view of the underwater world. 巨大的玻璃窗可以打开,让人看到水下世界。(P.12第二段第3行)
 view:
 (1) n. 视力;视界;视野 My view of the harbor was blocked by the new building. 新大楼挡住了我的视线,我看不见港口。The valley was hidden from view in the mist.
山谷笼罩在雾中,看不见。
 (2) n. (画片、照片) 风景;景色There's no view from my bedroom window except of some factory chimneys. 从我卧室往窗外看,除了几个工厂的烟囱外,什么景色也没有。
 (3) n. 看;观察,眺望 If you stand here, you'll get a better view of the procession. 如果你站在这里,就可以比较清楚地看到行进的队伍。
 (4) n. 意见;观点;见解 In my view, he's a fool. 在我看来,他是个傻瓜。What are your views on free education? 你对义务教育有什么看法?
 辨析:scenery,scene与view
 (1) 乡村的景色,若从美的观点来看,就叫scenery。
 (2) view是scenery的一部分,也就是从某个地方所能看得到的景色。
 (3) scene在意思上可和view一样,但scene (场面)大都包括人和动作在内:The scenery of the West Lakes is beautiful. 西湖的景色很漂亮。There's a fine view of the mountains from our hotel window. 从旅馆的窗子往外看,我们能看到山峦的美景。It's a happy scene of children playing in the garden. 孩子们在花园里玩是多快乐的场面。
 拓展:in view of 鉴于......;考虑到,由于; on view 展览着,上映中,陈列着
20. Readers have wondered about the character of Cap- tain Nemo ever since the book was published. 自从这本书出版后,读者就对尼莫舰长的性格有很多疑惑。(P.12第四段第1行)
 1) wonder (1) v. 对......感到疑惑(或好奇),想知道 I was wondering where to spend the weekend. 我想知道在何处度周末。I wonder if you are free this afternoon. 我想知道你下午是否有空。(2) n. [U] 惊奇,惊叹,惊讶 Her success struck us all with wonder. 她的成功使我们大家都很惊讶。(3) n. [C]奇迹,奇观,奇事,奇才 The Great Wall is one of the Seven Wonders of the world. 长城是世界七大奇观之一。
 联想:wander v. 漫游,漫步,漂泊
 拓展:no wonder that 怪不得,难怪,不足为奇
 2) since (1) prep. 自从......以来,后来 He has eaten nothing since yesterday. 自从昨天以来,他没吃过东西。I have known her since 2001. 我从2001年起就认识她。(2) conj. (引导时间状语从句) 自从......以来A lot of new things have happened since he left. 他走了以后,已经发生了许多新情况。We have been friends since we left school. 我们从毕业后一直是朋友。(3) conj. (引导原因状语从句) 既然,因为,由于Since you are going, I'll go too. 既然你要去,我也要去。Since you can't answer the question. I'll ask someone else. 既然你回答不了这个问题,我再去问别人。(4) adv. 自从......以来 I have always been on my guard since then. 从那时起,我就一直提防着。
 注意:正确理解过去时态的since从句。
 since时间从句中,不论用短暂动词、延续动词还是状态动词的一般过去时,通常都表示从动作或状态的完成或结束时算起,因此这种since从句应理解为"自从该动作结束以来"。如:Great changes have taken place here since he left. 自从他离开以来,这里发生了巨大的变化。
 提示:(1) 从句中使用延续性动词时,常容易误解。(2) 如果要表示从句中的动作或状态延续至今,该动词须用现在完成时,有时也可以用一般过去时,但这时需要在since前加ever,强调与现在的联系。如:I haven't heard from him since he lived (was) in Beijing. 自从他离开北京,我没有收到过他的来信。How long is it since you smoked? 你戒烟多久了(或你多长时间没抽烟了)?I have known her since I have lived here (或ever since I lived here / since I lived here). 从我住到这儿以来,我就认识她。
拓展:ever since从那时起一直到现在; long since 很久以前,早已; since then 从那时以后,从此以后
Section III 词汇语法、综合技能
21. Instead of children's play and adventure,... 我没有孩子们的那些嬉戏和冒险,... (P. 15 第一段第1行)
 instead of prep. 取代,而不 He'll go to Italy instead of France. 他要去意大利而不是去法国。 You should be out playing instead of working indoors all day. 你应该到户外去活动活动,而不要整天呆在屋子里工作。
 辨析:instead,instead of,in place of,take the place of,for,"代替"
 (1) instead 单独位于句首或句尾,是副词;(2) instead of 用在名词、代词、动名词、不定式、形容词、副词或介词短语前;(3) in place of 书面语 (=instead of) ("代替某人"还可用in sb.'s place);(4) take the place of 作谓语,用在名词、代词前;(5) for 口语用在名词、代词前,是介词。He went there to earn money instead of to spend money. 他到那儿去是为了赚钱而不是花钱的。Things are better instead of worse. 现在形势是更好了,而不是更坏了。You should be out instead of in. 你应当出去走走,不要老呆在家里。I'll go there by bicycle instead of by ship. 我将骑自行车去那儿,而不是坐轮船。We use gas in place of coal in cooking. 我们用煤气代替煤来做饭。Our monitor is away. I'm acting in place of him (in his place). 班长不在,我代替他的职务。Tractors have taken the place of horses in many places. 在许多地方拖拉机取代了马。Please post this letter for me. 请替我寄了这封信。
22. I read all the books I could find that threw light upon these matters. 我读了我能找到的并能说明这些情况的书籍。(P.15第二段第1行) matter:
 (1) n. [U] 物质,物体(非思想或精神) What kinds of matter is the earth made up of? 地球是由什么物质组成的?
 (2) n. [C] 事情,问题 I don't talk to my employer about private matters. 我不跟我的雇主谈私事。That will make matters worse. 那会使事情变得更糟。
 (3) n. 困难,麻烦,毛病 What's the matter? Why are you crying? 怎么回事? 你为什么哭? There's nothing the matter with me. 我没什么。
 (4) v. 有重要性It doesn't matter if I miss my train, because there's another later. 我如果没赶上火车也没什么关系,因为晚些时候还有一班。I don't think anybody matters to her apart from herself. 我认为她一心只顾自己,从不考虑别人。
 拓展:as a matter of fact 事实上;其实 / in the matter of 关于/ to make matters worse 更糟的是/ for that matter 就此而言,而且/ no matter how (when,what,where,who,whether...) 不管怎样,(何时,什么,哪里,谁,是否......)
 准确记忆:a matter事情,问题 matters事态,情况the matter = wrong
23. However, I found all that was taught at university very disappointing and ...然而我发现大学所教的课程都很令人失望... (P.15第二段第3行) disappoint:
 (1) vt. 使失望,扫兴 I'm sorry to disappoint you, but I can't come after all. 让你失望,真抱歉,可是我实在不能来。The movie disappointed me. 这部电影使我失望。
 (2) vt. 破坏(计划),使(希望)落空 I'm sorry to disappoint your hopes. 害得你的希望落空,真抱歉。The experiment disappointed their hopes. 那一次实验使他们的希望落空了。
 辨析:disappointing与disappointed
 disappointing adj. 令人失望的,灰心的,扫兴的
 disappointed adj. (指人)失望的,扫兴的
 What disappointing news it is! 多扫兴的消息。Your examination marks are rather disappointing. 你的成绩真叫人失望。Since he lost the election he is a disappointed man. 他落选之后,一直很失意。Are you very disappointed about/at losing the race? 你跑输了是不是很灰心?
 辨析:disappoint与despair
 (1) 在词义上,disappoint表示"使......失望";despair表示"绝望,彻底失望"。
 (2) 在词性上,disappoint为及物动词;despair为不及物动词。He was disappointed,but didn't despair. 他失望,但没绝望。
24. Although I knew how to create life, how to prepare a body for it with all its muscles and organs still remained a difficult job.尽管我知道如何创造生命,但是怎样为它制造一个又有肌肉又有器官的身躯仍然是个难题。(P.15第四段第3-4行) remain:
 (1) vi. 剩下,遗留 After the fire,very little remained of my house. 大火过后,寒舍所剩无几。
 (2)说留待以后去看、去做、去说等(后跟不定式) Much work remained to be done. 还有很多工作要做。
 (3) vi. 逗留,留下 I'll remain to see the end of the game. 我将留下看比赛的结果。
 (4) link-v. 继续保持,仍是 He remained silent after class. 下课后他仍默不做声。The door remained closed. 门一直关着。
 辨析:stay与remain
 ① stay 最普通用语,或长期或短期,或永远或暂时地停留;② remain 强调维持原来的状态,表示"逗留" 时比stay更正式些。如:You go; I'll stay here till you come back. 你去吧,我待在这里直到你回来。Little of the original architecture remains. 原来的建筑物现在留存很少了。How many days will you remain here? 你准备在此待几天?
25. I collected my instruments around me, with which I would light the flame of life in the dead thing that lay at my feet. 我把身边的工具都收集起来,用这些工具我可以将生命之光注入到这个躺在我脚下没有生命的东西的身体里。 (P. 15倒数第二段第3-4行) with which:
 非限制性定语从句"介词+引导词": 在非限制性定语从句中,因which在从句中充当介词宾语,一般将介词置于关系代词which的前面(固定的动词词组除外)。类似的用法有:There is a room, the window of which faces the river. 有一问房子,窗户朝着这条河。The wrong you've done him is terrible, for which you should make an apology to him. 你太冤枉他了,因为这件事,你该向他道歉。



高二英语Unit13 The water planet知识点总复习教案
Section I 课前准备、听力、口语
1. Practise making suggestions and expressing opinions. 练习提出建议并发表观点。(p. 17 Goals 2)
 ▲ practise vt. 练习
 practise后面的动词一般要用-ing形式。类似practise这种接动词-ing形式作宾语的动词还有:finish, enjoy, mind, give up, can't help, suggest, keep等。如:① I practise playing the piano every day. 我每天练习弹钢琴。② She had finished writing the letter when I went in. 我进去时她已写完信了。③He enjoys skating very much. 他非常喜欢溜冰。④ Do you mind closing the window? 请你把窗
户关上好吗? ⑤ Mary couldn't help laughing at Tom's joke. 对于Tom的玩笑,Mary忍不住笑了。
拓展:practice n. in practice实际上put sth. into practice将...付诸实施
2. Fill one glass with fresh water and another glass with salt water. 在一个玻璃杯里装满淡水另一个玻璃杯里装满盐水。( p.17 Warming up No.4)
 ▲ fill的用法 (1) 使满;填满 He filled the bath with water. 他把浴缸装满水。(2) 占有(地位),任(职位) The position of the principal is not yet filled. 校长的职位还空着。(3) 供应(需求) ① His answer did not fill our need. 他的回答无法满足我们的要求。② Fill in your telephone number. 请填写你的电话号码。③ The room was filled with laughter. 房间里充满了笑声。④ I have filled up the bottle. 我把瓶子装满了。
▲拓展:fill in填写(事项,表格等) fill...with...把......装满 be filled with = be full of充满 fill up 装满;填写(= fill in)
3. What can we do to protect the water on our planet? 我们能做些什么来保护我们这个星球上的水呢?(p.17 倒数第1行)
 ▲protect保护,防御 常与介词against (from)连用,译为"保护......免遭"。① He is wearing sunglasses to protect his eyes from the strong sunlight. 他戴着太阳镜以挡强烈的阳光。② The heavy rain kept us from going out. 大雨使我们无法出去。
▲注意:stop (prevent)...from doing中from可省去;keep...from doing中from不可省。
▲拓展:keep...from...阻止(妨碍)...做...= stop... (from)... = prevent ... from ...
4. Who tells the story in the poem?谁讲了这首诗里的故事? ( p.18 Part 1 No. 1)
 ▲tell的重要句型归纳
(1) tell + n.(人) + n. = tell + n. + to + n. (人) Did you tell your parents the news? =Did you tell the news to your parents? 你把这消息告诉你父母了吗?
(2) tell + n. (人) + (that)/wh... ① He told me(that)he would be back in an hour. 他告诉我,一个小时内他就回来。② He told her what had happened. 他告诉她发生了什么事。
(3) tell + n. (人) + of (about) He told me of (about) his worries.他告诉我他的烦恼。
 ▲ 拓展:
 tell + n. + from + n. 辨别......和...... all told总共
 Don't tell me! 不至于吧! I (can) tell you. 的确,真的
There is no telling. 不得而知;很难说。
 to tell the truth 老实说
① It's sometimes hard to tell one twin from the other. 双胞胎有时很难分辨。② All told, there were 350 people killed in the plane crash. 那次坠机事件中总共有350人丧生。③Don't tell me you are going back to your hometown.你不至于要回到你的故乡吧。④It's a wonderful invention, I (can) tell you. 那的确是个了不起的发明。⑤ There is no telling where he is. 无法知道他到底在哪里。
5. Work with your partner and see whether you can come up with a good, scary story... 跟你的同伴一同看看是否能想出一个好的,引起惊慌的故事... (p.18 Listening Part 2 No. 4) come up with的用法
▲come up with在本单元中作"提出""想出"解。如: ① The young engineer came up with a new design. 那个年轻工程师提出一种新的设计方案。②The magazine recently came up with some advice on smoking.该杂志最近就吸烟问题提出一些忠告。③ You've come up with a good idea. 你想出的主意好极了。④ Scientists will have to come up with new methods of increasing the world's food supply. 科学家们必须找出增加全世界食品供应的新方法。
▲ come up with有"拿出..." "筹措钱"之意。如:① If Waths can come up with $15 million, we'll go to London. 如果瓦茨能够拿出一千五百万美元,我们就去伦敦。② You have no choice but t0 come up with £18, 000.你别无选择,必须拿出一万八千英镑。
▲ come up with亦可作"赶上"解。如:① Let's hurry up so that we may come up with them. 咱们快些走,以便赶上他们。② We shall have to work hard so as to come up with the other firm. 我们得努力工作才能赶上另一家商行。
6. Who benefits from using water in this way.以这种方法用水谁受益了? (p. 18 Speaking 第5 点)
 ▲ benefit的用法
 (1) n. 利益;益处 I get a lot of benefit from learning a foreign language. 从学习外语中我得到许多益处。
 ▲ 注意:以下两个短语:be of benefit to对......有裨益;for the benefit of为了......(的利益)。① That experience was of great benefit to me. 那个经验对我很有益处。②We must make efforts to take exercise for the benefit of our health. 为了健康我们必须努力锻炼身体。
 (2) vi. 有益于① Such foolish behaviour will not benefit your ease. 这样愚蠢的行为将无益于你的案子。② I benefited enormously from my father's advice. 我从父亲的忠告中获益良多。
【注】benefit可作为及物动词用,意为"有益于"。如:①The trade agreement will greatly benefit the developing countries.贸易会谈将大大的有益于发展中国家。②The new railway will benefit the district. 这条新铁路将会给这个地区带来好处。③ The long rest benefited her. 长期休息对她有好处。
 ▲ benefit from/by的用法: benefit from/by意为"从......中得益""得益于......"。如:① We can all benefit from his knowledge. 我们均可得益于他的知识。② You benefit from what he told you in the letter. 你会从他的信中受益。
Section II 阅读
7. 99% percent of the living space on earth is in the oceans. 地球上百分之九十九的生存空间是在海洋里。(p.19 第一段 第2-3行)
▲百分数作主语时,即percent后有数词时,应注意两点:一是percent不能用复数形式;二是谓语动词的单复数。如果percent of后的名词为单数,谓语动词用单数;其后的名词为复数,谓语动词则用复数。如:① About 70 percent of the surface of the earth is water.地球表面大约百分之七十是水。② Eight percent of the students are absent today.今天有百分之八的学生缺席。
【注】percent可作为副词用,在句中作状语。如:①I notice you don't say that you're a hundred percent convinced yourself. 我注意到你没有让你自己完全信服。 ② Prices have risen 5. 5 percent in the past year. 过去一年物价上涨了5.5%。③ I think it's ninety percent probable. 我想有百分之九十的可能性。
【注】percent也可作形容词用,在句中充当定语。如: I paid him six percent interest.我付给他百分之六的利息。
【注】percentage意为"百分比",多与of连用。如果连用的名词是复数,后面的动词就用复数形式,否则用单数形式。如:① What percentage of babies die of this disease every year? 每年婴儿死于这种疾病的百分率是多少? ② What percentage 0f his income is paid in income tax? 他的收入有多大比例用来交所得税?
8. Marine life is incredibly rich and varied. 海洋生物极其丰富多样。(p.19 第一段 第3行)
 ▲varied是由动词vary变化而来的过去分词,在句中作定语或表语。如:① The menu is varied and cheap.菜单上的菜花样很多也很便宜。② They made varied efforts to bring about a peaceful solution of the problems. 他们做了种种努力来和平解决这些问题。③ They are rich in content and varied in style.它们内容丰富、风格多样。④ He had had varied training and had held many offices.他受过多种训练并担任过多种职务。
▲动词vary意为"有差异""有变化"时,是不及物动词。如:① Courses vary according to the needs of the students. 课程根据学生的需要而不同。②People vary very much in their ideas. 人与人的想法差别是很大的。③ The answers given by different people vary greatly.不同人作出的回答,差别非常大。
▲vary可作及物动词,意思是"使......有变化""变换"。如:①You should vary your diet. 你的饮食应经常变换花样。② She varies her dress as fashion changes. 她的衣着随潮流而变化。
【注】vary充当及物动词时,可用现在分词作定语。如:varying prices 不断变化的价格。
9. There are about five million species in the oceans and we have yet to learn much about them. 海洋里大约有500万种生物有关这些种群的情况,我们还有许多东西要了解。(p.19第一段第4行)
1) species
 ▲ species意为"种""类"。单复数同形,主要指生物学上有相同特征的动植物品种、种类。如:① The agri- cultural extort has developed a productive species of rice.这个农业专家培育出一种高产水稻品种。② Pandas are an endangered species.熊猫是一种濒临灭绝的动物。③ Some species of animals have become extinct because they could not adapt to a changing environment.有一些动物已经灭绝了,因为它们不能适应环境的变化。
 【注】species可用来表示"人类"。如:① The use of nuclear weapons is a horrible threat to the species. 核武器的使用对人类是一个严重的威胁。② The protection of our environment will benefit the human species.保护环境有益于全人类。
 【注】 species在口语中表示"种类",相当于a kind,a type,a sort。如:① Various species of business advertise- ments on the television sometimes make TV programs rather dull. 电视上五花八门的商业广告有时使电视节目十分乏味。②A strange species of car attracted the attention of people.一种形状奇特的轿车引起了人们的注意。
 【注】英语中还有specie这个词,不要把它误认为是species的单数, 这是两个完全不同的词。specie意为"硬币"。
 2) yet在肯定句中的意思和用法。
 ▲yet一般用于否定句和疑问句,意为"还""已经"。如: ① I don't want to go away yet.我现在还不想离开。② The moon had not yet risen.月亮还没有升起。③ I wonder if she's started yet.不知她开始了没有。
▲在个别情况下yet也可用在肯定句中,意为"还""又"。如:① It was too early yet to tell anything. 现在要说什么还为时过早。② I have a few more pages to read yet. 我还有几页书要看。③ Much yet remains to be done. 还有很多事等着去做。
▲yet可用来表示将来还可能发生某事,意为"迟早""终归"。如: ① The plan may yet succeed. 这个计划还可能成功。 ②It will be colder yet before spring comes. 春天到来之前还可能更冷一些。③ The thief will be caught yet.小偷迟早会被抓住的。
▲yet可作连词用,意为"但是""然而"。如:①Jane said she Was ill, yet I saw her in the street just now. 简说她病了,但我刚才还看到她在街上。② I gave him all he asked for,yet he is still not satisfied. 我给了他所要的一切,但是他仍然不满意。
 ▲yet也可以和and连用,表示"但是"。如:He's plea- sant enough, and yet I don't like him. 他够招人喜欢的,但我不喜欢他。
 【注】still,already和yet都有"还""仍然"之意,但是有差别。still暗示对某事件持续时间比预料的长而感到惊讶。如:The coffee is still hot. (咖啡还是热的。) already用于表达对某事物发生时间比预料的时间早而感到惊讶。如:The coffee is cold already.(咖啡已经凉了。) yet一般用于否定句和疑问句中,在正式语体中有时可代替still。如:I have still/yet to hear the truth. (我仍然未被告知真相。)
10. Life in the ocean ranges from the tiniest plankton all the way up to giants like sharks and whales.海洋里的生物中从微小的浮游生物到巨大的动物如鲨鱼和鲸鱼都有。(p.19 第一段 第5-6行)
▲range在本单元中作不及物动词用,意为"在一定范围、幅度内变动"。range的此种用法无进行时态,常与介词from...to...或between连用。如:① Sentences today range from 5 or 6 words to 70, with the majority not far from 20. 现在的句子长度从五、六个词到七十个词不等。不过大多数句子的长度在二十个字左右。② His interests ranged from chess to surfing. 他的爱好从下棋到冲浪,无所不有。③ Their ages ranged from 25 to 50. 他们的年龄在二十五岁到五十岁之间。④ The temperature ranges between 0℃and 30℃.气温在摄氏零度到30度之间。
* range后接介词over时表示"漫游..." "涉及""包括"。如:①We ranged over the hills and valleys. 我们在山上和山谷中漫游。② Our conversation ranged over many topics. 我们的谈话涉及许多话题。
【注】range 作"漫游"解释时,可作为及物动词用。如:He spent the summer ranging the countryside. 他在乡间漫游,度过了夏天。
 ▲ all the way意为"一直""始终",也可以用the whole way。如:① There being no bus, he had to walk all the way home. 没有公共汽车,他不得不一直步行到家。② I'll support him all the way whatever happens. 不管发生什么事,我将始终支持他。③ The dog has been with me all the way. 这条狗一直跟着我。
 ▲ up to此处是与from连用的。up to单独使用时有"直到""至多"之 意。如:① It could be up to two years before the project is completed.可能需要两年时间这项工程才能完成。② She was here up to a few minutes ago. 她直到数分钟前还在这里。③ Our minibus can hold up to eight people. 我们的小车能容纳8人。④ Up to now I've never met him. 一直到现在,我还没见过他。
【注】up to有很多意思,常见的还有"忙于...""由......决定、负责"。如:① What have you been up to all day while I've been busy? 我整天忙着的时候你在干什么? ② Go and see what these girls are up to.去看看这些女孩子在干什么。③ It's up to you whether you decide t0 take the job. 要不要这份工作由你自己决定。④ It's up to you to break the news to him. 该由你把这消息告诉他。
【注】up to还可作"及得上""可以与......相比较"解。如:① This new book of Green's isn't up to his last. 格林的这本书不如上一本好。② He is not up to his father as a scholar. 作为学者他不如他父亲。
11. What makes the ocean such a great place to live? 究竟是什么东西使海洋成为如此优越的生活场所呢?(p.19 第一段倒数第2-1行) ▲ make的用法归纳
 (1) make + n. + n. 使...① In 1849, Marx went to England and made London the base for his revolutionary work. 1849年马克思到了英国,把伦敦作为从事革命工作的基地。② We made him monitor. 我们选他当班长。
▲ 注意:当表示独一无二的职位名词作宾补时,例如:president,chairman,manager等,名词前不加冠词。
 (2) make + n. + adj. 使...They've made their hometown rich. 他们已使家乡富有了。
 (3) make + n. + do sth. 使某人做某事 The boss made him work 10 hours a day. 老板让他每天工作10小时。
 ▲ 注意:此句型若变成被动语态,后面的动词前要加"to",构成"be made to do sth."。He was made to work 10 hours a day.他被迫一天工作10小时。
 (4) make + n. + 过去分词She couldn't make herself heard. 别人听不到她的话。
12. Water is actually quite simple, but the way the water molecule is formed gives water its unique properties. 水实际上很简单,但是水分子组成的方式赋予它独特的特性。(p.19 Chemical Structure 第2-3行)
 ▲way在此处表示"方式",其后的定语从句的关系代词that或in which均可省去。如:① That's the way I look at it. 这就是我对此的看法。② I don't like the way you laugh at her. 我不喜欢你那样嘲笑她。③ People like the way he wrote. 人们喜欢他写作的方式。④ The way you are doing it is completely crazy. 你这么个干法,简直是疯了。
 【注】way后面除了跟省去关系代词的定语从句外,还可以跟不定式或动名词,两者之间没有重要的区别。如:①He had no way to communicate with them. 他没有办法和他们取得联系。② There is only one way of doing this properly. 只有一种办法能把这事办好。③ What's the way to address her? 应以怎样的方式称呼她? ④ I have no way of finding out whether they are competent. 我没办法弄清楚他们是否胜任。
 【注】在in...way作状语时,in也可以省掉。如:① They both answered the same way. 他们都以同样的方式回答。② I'm going to do it my way. 我要按我自己的办法去做。③ You can't do it this way. 你不能这样做。
▲unique意为"独特的""独一无二的"。如:① She was a woman of unique talent and determination.她是个具有无与伦比的才能和决心的女人。②The stamp is unique; there are no others like it.这邮票是独一无二的,再也没有像这样的了。③ The area has its own unique language. 这个地区只有一种自己的语言。④ As a writer he has his own unique style.作为作家他有其独特的风格。 ⑤ The young author wrote a unique book about life with city. 那位青年作家写了一本独特的关于这座城市生活的书。
13. The water molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. 水分子由二个氢原子和一个氧原子构成。(p.19 Chemical Structure 第3-4行)
 ▲ make up of常用被动式,意为"由......所组成"。如:① The train was made up of 15 coaches. 这列火车有15节车厢。② All living matter is made up of cells. 一切有生命的东西都由细胞组成。③ Paper, for instance, is made up of transparent fibers.例如纸就是由透明纤维构成的。④ New England is made up of six states. 新英格兰包括6个州。
 ▲make up可作"弥补...""赔偿""补足"解。如:① We'll do all we can to make up the economic losses. 我们要尽一切力量弥补这些经济损失。② This will make up for what he lacked in book knowledge. 这就可以补足他所缺少的书本知识。③ The new teacher made up for his inexperience by careful preparation for each lesson. 这位新教师每节课都认真准备,以此弥补自己的经验不足。
 ▲make up亦可作"编选""虚构"解。如:①These dances were made up by the students themselves. 这些舞蹈都是学生们自己编排的。② She made up an excuse to explain her absence. 她编了一套理由来解释自己为什么缺席。③ He asked each of us to make up a dialogue. 他让我们每人编一段对话。
▲make up还有"和解""言归于好"之意。如:① She told us about their quarrels and how they made up. 她给我们讲到了他们的争吵以及他们怎样又和好。②When a quarrel has once been made up, the best thing is to forget it.一场争吵和解后,最好是把它忘掉。③They advised him to make things up with his wife. 他们劝他和妻子言归于好。
▲make up亦有"做成""铺好"之意。如:① Then they made them up into tablets.然后他们把它们制成了药。② They made up their beds immediately after getting up.他们一起身就把床铺好。
14. Because water is polar,it can break down or dissolve both solids and gases. 因为水是带正电的,所以它能分解固体和气体。(p.19 Chemical Structure 第6行)
 ▲break down是个常用词组,我们在高二上册同步讲解中已作过解释,但此处break down作"分解"解。如: ① Chemicals in the body break our food down into useful substances.人体里的化学元素把食物分解成有用的物质。② The figures on living expenses must be broken down into food, shelter, education, medical bills and so on. 生活消费的数字必须细分为食物类、住房类、教育类、医疗费类等等。③ After many years, rocks broke down into dirt. 岩石经年累月之后分化成尘土。
 ▲break down还有很多解释,常见的有"(身体)垮了""(计划)失败" "(精神)支持不住了"。如:① His health broke down because he had strained himself too much in his work. 他因工作劳累过度而把身体搞垮了。② Marc broke down tearfully when she was told the death of her husband.玛丽听到他丈夫的死时痛哭流涕。③ Their plan has broken down.他们的计划失败了。
▲break down可作"(机器等)坏了"解。如:① Then the car I was in broke down. 那时我乘坐的汽车坏了。②When the pumps broke down, they would repair them for us. 水泵坏了,他们就帮我们修。③ The washing machine seems to have broken down again. 洗衣机好像又坏了。
▲break down有"中断"之意。如:① He broke down in the middle of his speech. 他讲到一半儿停了下来。② Telephone communication with other cities has broken down. 和其他城市的电话联系中断了。③ That is how the talks broke down. 谈判就是那样中断的。
▲break down还"打破""摧毁""制服"之意。如:① Firemen had m break down the wall to save the child. 为了救孩子,消防队员不得不把墙推倒。② We have broken down the resistance of the enemy. 我们已经打垮了敌人的顽抗。③The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察试图压制囚犯的反抗。
15. Density is the relationship between mass and volume and is measured in kilogrammes per cubic metre. 密度是指质量和容量的相关程度。它的测量单位是每立方米的公斤数。(p.20 Density 第1行) ▲ measure的用法:
(1) 有......之大小 This room measures 6 metres by 4. 这个房间有6米长4米宽。
 (2) 测量 (长度、大小、重量等) The tailor measured me for a suit. 裁缝给我量尺寸做好西装。
 (3) 措施;办法 ①They took strong measures against reckless drivers.他们对于鲁莽的驾驶员采取强硬的手段。②If a substance has a higher density, say 5000 kg/m3, it will not float on water. 如果一种物质的密度比水的大,比如5000 kg/m3,那它就不能浮在水上。
16. Marine animals and plants take advantage of the density of water. 海洋动物和植物利用了水的密度的特性。(p.20 Density 第4行)
▲take advantage of意为"利用""占便宜"。如:① They often took advantage of his lack of experience.他们常常利用他缺乏经验这个弱点。② He took advantage of his friend's kindness.他利用了他朋友的好心肠。③ He didn't want to take unfair advantage. 他不愿意占人便宜。④Jane took advantage of the lunch hour to finish her homework.珍利用午饭时问完成家庭作业。⑤ We took advantage of the fine weather to air quilts. 我们趁好天气晾晒被褥。⑥ They took full advantage of the school's facilities.他们充分利用学校的设施。
【注】take advantage of sb. 意为"欺骗(捉弄)某人...""利用某人(的弱点)"。如:① He's taking advantage 0f her good nature.他在利用她秉性善良的弱点。② She took advantage of him even after they were divorced. 即使在离婚后,她还在欺骗他。
【注】take advantage of意为"利用",而have the advantage of则意为"胜过......" "对......具有优势..." "具有......的优点"。试看下列例句:① He has the advantage of me in experience. 他在经验方面胜过我。② Cereals have the advantage of being rich in iron. 麦片粥具有富含铁质的优点。
【注】表示"利用(机会)"或"利用(时间)"还可以用take the opportunity,take,(one's) time。如:① He likes to take his time over breakfast.他喜欢不紧不慢地吃早饭。②Some of the soldiers took the opportunity the next day to go ashore.第二天有些士兵利用这机会上岸去了。
17. Most animals and plants are sensitive to large or sudden changes in temperature,... 大多数的动物或植物对温度大的或突然的改变非常敏感,...(p.20 Heat Capacity 第3行)
▲be sensitive to意为"对......敏感"。如:① The eye is sensitive to light. 眼睛对光敏感。② Photographic paper is highly sensitive to light. 照相纸对光十分敏感。③ An artist is sensitive to beauty. 艺术家对美是敏锐的。
▲sensitive有"神经质的""神经过敏的"意思。如:① You really must stop being so sensitive about your accent.你实在不必为自己的口音感到烦燥不安。② Don't mention she's put on weight-she's very sensitive about it. 不要说她胖了-她对此非常敏感。
 ▲sensitive可引申为"善解人意的"。如:He is very sensitive to his pupils' need for encouragement and knows when to praise them.他非常理解学生对鼓励的需要,并知道何时表扬他们。
 【注】另一个词sensible和sensitive一样都是形容词,但意思不同。sensible意为"明智的""合情合理的"。如:① She's very sensible about money.她在金钱方面是非常理智的。②Why don't you do something sensible in your spare time?你为什么不在业余时间干些有意义的事情呢? ③ You are sensible to take his advice. 你听从他的劝告是明智的。
18. The water in the oceans also keeps the temperature of the earth steady by absorbing and giving off heat. 由于海水的吸热和释热的作用,从而使地球的温度保持稳定。(p.20 Heat Capacity最后一行) ▲ keep的几种用法
(1) keep可用于复合结构,其宾语补足语可以是介词短语、现在分词、过去分词、形容词、副词等。如:① I'll keep the box in the shade. 我将把盒子保存在阴影处。 ② The bad cold kept him in bed for three days. 他得了重感冒,只得卧床三天。③I'm sorry to have kept you waiting. 对不起,让你久等了。④ It's cold inside.Let's keep the fire burning. 屋里很冷,咱们让炉子烧下去吧。⑤ Don't keep the door closed all day long. 不要整天把门关着。⑥ She keeps the windows covered with curtains. 她总是把窗帘拉着。⑦Sports and games help to keep people healthy. 体育活动有助于健康。⑧ It's blowing hard.and I can hardly keep my eyes open.风刮得很大,我简直睁不开眼。⑨ We should keep the children away from the dangerous animals. 我们不能让孩子们靠近那些危险的动物。⑩ There's a lot of air in loose snow, and this helps to keep the cold out. 松散的积雪里有大量空气,这有利于御寒。
(2) keep表示"保存""保管"。如:① How long can I keep this book? 这本书我可以借多久?(不能用borrow) ②Will you keep these boxes for me while I'm away? 我不在时,请你替我保管这几个箱子,行吗? ③This building is about 100 years old, but it has been well kept. 这幢建筑有一百年左右的历史了,迄今还保存完好。
(3) keep用作连系动词,后面接形容词作表语。① I hope you're keeping well. 我希望你身体健康。② Keep cool and listen to me. 冷静点,听我说。
(4) keep表示"养活""饲养"。如:① Mr Ford has a big family to keep (= support). Ford先生要养活一大家人。② His job is to keep pigs on a farm. 他的工作是在一个农场上养猪。
 注意:raise表示"从小养到大",因此我们可以说:① She was raised (=brought up) by her grandmother. (她是由她祖母带大的。) ② He has three children to raise/keep/support. (他要抚养三个孩子。) 在下面句子中不能用raise: He has a wife and two children to keep/support. (他要养活妻子和两个孩子。) 因为这里raise不适用于wife。
(5) keep on doing sth. 表示"继续做某事""坚持不懈地,不间断地做某事""反复地做某事"。Go on doing sth. 有时也可表示这些意思。例如:①The farmers kept on working in the fields when it began to rain.下雨的时候,农民们还不停地在地里劳动。②Don't give up,keep on trying. 不要半途而废,要坚持努力。③ Don't keep (on) doing such silly things.不要老是做这样的傻事。
 ▲ 注意:重复性较强的时候,多用keep doing (sth.)。 She kept coughing all night. 她整夜咳嗽。
 ▲ 注意:keep后面接行为动词,不能接sitting,standing,lying,sleeping等表示静态的动词。如:不能说He kept on sitting. 这时应用keep。如:可以说keep lying/standing/sitting there;
 ▲ keep和keep on后均不可接意识性动词如knowing,realizing,understanding等。
① There used to be a soldier at the gate to keep watch. 过去大门口通常有一士兵警戒。② They kept close watch on the child's health. 他们密切关注着孩子的健康。③ The police had to keep the crowd back. 警察只好挡住人群。④ She could hardly keep back her tears. 她忍不住哭了。⑤ Once you get in touch with her, you should keep in touch with her. 一旦你与她取得联系,你应与她保持联系。⑥ I'll keep my promise/word and come to help you. 我会信守诺言来帮助你。⑦ The rain kept on (= went on/lasted)several days. 雨一连下了好几天。⑧ I hope the weather will keep up (= stay fine). 我希望这样的天气会持续下去。⑨ Keep up your courage (= Don't lose heart) and never give up. 鼓起勇气,千万不要灰心。⑩ He could hardly keep up with the class though he often works deep into night. 他尽管常用功到深夜但仍很难跟上。? Keep off the door. It's wet painted. 别碰门,刚油漆过。? Shut the door and keep the cold out. 把门关上,不要让寒风进来。? Keep out of trouble while I'm away. 我不在时别闯祸。
 ▲ 拓展:keep watch 警戒;守望; keep close watch on 密切关注; keep...back 阻挡;忍不住; keep in touch with 与......保持联系; keep one's promise 守诺; keep on = go on = last 持续; keep up 保持;鼓起; keep up with 跟上; keep off 远离; keep...out (of) 保持......在外; keep to the right 靠右走; keep to bed 卧床不起
 ▲ steady (1) adj. 坚固的 Hold that candle steady. 把那支蜡烛拿稳。(2) adj. 平稳的;有规律的 The economy is keeping up a steady speed. 经济保持稳定的增长。(3) adj. 不变的;稳定的 We have a steady job.我们有一个稳定的工作。(4) adj. 可靠的;稳健的She needs to marry someone steady. 她必须跟可靠的人结婚。
19.This circulation adds energy to the marine ecosys- tems...这种循环使海洋生态系统增加了能量... (p.20 Ocean Motion 第3-4行) add to和add up to
▲这两个词组的意思完全不同。前者意为"增加",后者作"总计"解。如:① Would you please add these names to your list? 请在你的名单上加上这几个名字好吗? ② We have also added t0 our committee two women workers. 我们委员会也吸收了两名女工当委员。③ The music added to our enjoyment of the film. 这部电影的音乐使我们更加喜欢这部电影。④ Every book you need will add to your store of knowledge. 你每读一本书就会增加一点儿知识。
▲add up to意为"总数是""加起来是"。如:① The separate numbers add up to 485. 这些单独的数字加起来总数是485。① Seven and nine add up to sixteen. 7加9等于16。① Their knowledge 0f how other people live doesn't add up to much. 他们关于别人生活情况的了解合在一起也没有多少。
【注】add up to还可用于引申意义,表示"意味着""等于说"。如:① Your long answer just adds up to a refusal. 你这冗长的回答就等于是拒绝。②She gave many excuses, but what they added up to was that she did not want to come.她提出了种种借口,但只不过说明她不想来。③ It all adds up to this--he is not an honest man.这一切都说明,他这个人不诚实。
Section III 词汇、语法、综合技能
20. If he played a bad trick on you, the manager would say you were the thief and call in the police. 如果他捉弄你的话,经理就会说你是小偷,并报警。(p.22 Ex.2 倒数3-2行)
▲play a trick on意为"捉弄""开玩笑",也可以说play sb. a trick。如:① He played her a bad trick by taking all her money. 他跟她开了个恶劣的玩笑,把她的钱全拿去了。② It never occurred to me that they were playing a trick on me.我从未想到他们是在捉弄我。③ They played a thousand tricks on him.他们千方百计地欺骗他。④ They are playing harmless tricks on one another. 他们正彼此毫无恶意地恶作剧。
▲call in作"找来""请来"解,通常是指请医生或警察。如:① Call in a doctor at once. 马上把医生请来。② He insisted that we should call in a expert at this point. 这时他坚决主张我们去请一位专家来。
▲call in可作"来访""到......那里去"解。如:① He called in and told us that the machine had been badly damaged.他来告诉我们机器受到了严重损坏。② I formed the habit of calling in on them in the evenings.我每天晚上都到他们那里去,这已形成了习惯。
▲ call in还有"收回"之意。如:The librarians has called in all the books.图书馆管理员把书都收回去了。
【注】call in作"来访"解时,可看作不及物动词,如表示"访问某人",要说call in on sb.。如:① Could you call in on Mum on your way home? 你能不能在回家的路上看看妈妈? ② I got into the habit of calling in on the bookstore on my way home. 我在回家的路上总要去书店看看,这已成了习惯。
21. An estuary is the body of water where a river meets the ocean. 河口是河流与海洋汇合的水域。(p. 22 Integrating Skills 第2行)
 ▲ meet的用法归纳 (1) 遇;相见 Let's meet for dinner. 我们一起吃晚饭吧。(2) 遭遇I met (with) a lot of difficulties in the work. 在工作中我遭遇了许多困难。 (3) 认识,被引见 Come to the party and meet some interesting people.来参加聚会,认识一些有意思的人。(4) 迎接 The taxi will meet the train. 计程车将与火车接头。(5) 满足 Does this meet your hopes? 这个满足你的愿望了吗?
▲ 辨析:meet与meet with
*meet 往往暗示双方从相反或不同的方向相对而行,其宾语通常是人或人格化的事物的名词 (如:a person, a bus, a train, etc.)。
*meet with 有"遭受,经历"的含义,其后多接抽象名词(如:accident,difficulty,misfortune,opposition,etc.);meet with后也可接表示人的名词,这时强调"遇到"的偶然性。此外,meet with常见的意思还有"迎见,会见",这时可用meet取代。① I met your sister this morning. 我今天上午碰见了你姐姐。② The suggestion met with disfavour. 这项建议受到冷遇。③ He met (with) the Prime Minister of Japan for an hour and a half. 他和日本首相会见了一个半小时。
 ▲ 注意:在现代英语中,meet有时可以换用meet with,有"遭受,经历"的含义。 That was the first difficulty we met (with). 这是我们第一次碰到的困难。
22. The mixing of fresh and salt water creates a unique environment filled with life of all kinds. 这种淡水和盐水的混合创造了一个充满各种生命的独特的环境。
 ▲create在本课中作"造成""引起"解。如:① This created a serious marketing problem. 这就造成了一个严重的销售问题。② That of course would create a tense situation in the area.这自然会造成这个地区的紧张形势。③His speech created much ill will among the lower classes. 他的讲话在下层民众中引起极大反感。④ His behavior created a bad impression.他的行为给人留下很坏的印象。
 ▲create可作"创造""创作"解。如:⑤ The actor created an entirely new Hamlet.这位演员塑造了一个崭新的哈雷特形象。⑥ Dickens created many wonderful characters in his works.狄更斯在他的作品中创造了许多奇妙的人物。⑦ In the Olympics Chinese athletes created one new record after another.在奥林匹克运动会上中国运动员创造了一个又一个新记录。
 ▲ fill...with... 意为"装满...'充满"。如:① Then she filled everyone's cup with steaming tea. 然后她给大家斟上热腾腾的茶。② His heart filled with pleasure. 他满怀喜悦。③ The fire filled the room with smoke. 大火使房间里充满了烟。④ The announcement filled her with excitement. 那项声明使她激动不已。
【注】fill with常用过去分词作表语或定语。如:⑤ These days were filled with important and exciting events. 这些日子发生了许多重要的激动人心的事。⑥ The hall was at once filled with great joy. 大厅里顿时一片欢腾。 ⑦ In the hall were found twenty-six chests filled with valuable objects.在大厅里,发现了26个箱子,里面装满了珍贵物品。
23. ... and a lot of fish are caught in estuaries. 很多鱼也是在河口捕获的。(p.23 第一段 倒数第1行)
 ▲ catch用法归纳 (1) 接住;抓住 The dog caught the ball in its mouth. 狗用嘴巴接住了球。(2) 逮住(动物) Cats like to catch mice. 猫喜欢抓老鼠。(3) 无意中发现Mother caught me stealing from the shop and scolded me severely.母亲看到我偷商店里的东西,把我大骂一顿。(4) 赶上火车 We had to drive very quickly in order to catch
the train. 我们要开快车才能赶上火车。(5) 卡住 I caught my dress on a nail. 我的衣服被钉子钩住。(6) 打 I caught him on the head with a heavy blow. 我用力一拳打到他的头上。(7) 吸引(注意力) The boy knocked on the window to catch my attention. 小孩敲窗户引我注意。(8) 看到,注意到I caught sight of my old friend in town today. 今天在城里,我一眼瞥见我的老朋友。(9) 起(火);发动(车子) The wind was so strong that the fire caught quickly. 风很大,火很快地烧起来。The plane's engine is having difficulty in catching, so the flight will be late in leaving.飞机的引擎打不着火,因此班机将会延误起飞。(10) 听得懂I didn't catch what you said, please repeat it. 我听不清你的话,请再说一遍。
24. Estuaries are great places for nature's young ones. 河口是自然界生物繁衍的极好场所。(p. 23 第二段第1行) ▲ it,that和one作为替代词的用法
 (1) it代替的是前面提到的同一名称的同一事物,即同名同物。所代名词可以是可数名词也可以是不可数名词。例如:① And today, if you go to Salt Lake City, you can see a mountain with seagulls on top of it. (it代替可数名词mountain) 今天,如果你去盐湖城,你会看到一座山,在山顶上有很多海鸥。② He cast his net for the first time, and drew in the body of an animal. He cast it a second time... (it代替可数名词net)他第一次撒下网,拖上一具动物尸体。第二次他撒下网......③ Hibernation is more than sleep. It is a very deep sleep. (it代替不可数名词hibernation)冬眠不仅仅是睡眠;它是沉睡。
 (2) one代替的是前面提到的同名异物中的任何一个。所代名词只能是可数名词。其前可带冠词,还可被this,that或形容词修饰,其后也可有定语。例如:① The population problem may be the greatest one of the world today. (one代替可数名词problem)人口问题或许是当今世界上最大的问题。② -- Which jacket is yours? 哪一件上衣是你的?-- The white one. (one代替可数名词jacket)白的。
 (3) that代替前面提到的同名异物中特指的事物,所代替的名词可以是可数名词也可以是不可数名词,但其前不能有修饰语。例如:① The doctor in our school is younger than that in their school. (that代替可数名词doctor,不能用one代替,但可用the one代替)我们的校医比他们的年轻。② The weather of this week is worse than that of last week. (that代替不可数名词weather)本周的天气比上周的天气要糟。③The quality of iron produced in your factory is better than that in their factory. (that代替不可数名词quality) 你们厂生产的铁的质量比他们厂
的好。
 (4) 如果前面提到的名词是复数形式,为避免重复,则可视具体情况分别用they,them,ones或those代替。例如:① -- What's in these cups? 什么在这些杯子里? -- There's some tea in them. (them 代替cups)有些茶。② He thought it over carefully and concluded that heavy objects always fell faster than light ones. (ones代替objects) 他仔细考虑并且推断出重的物体比轻的物体落得快。③ Those weren't the right men, professor. (those代替men) 那些人不合适,教授。
 (5) it和that可代替前面整个句子的意思, 而one却不能。例如:① -- We'll try our best to catch them. 我们将尽最大努力赶上他们。-- It's not necessary, inspector.不必要,检察官。②Dr Brown said they had talked about my invention.But that was not possible. 布朗博士说他们谈过我的发明,但那是不可能的。
 ▲ 注意:间或it可以先出现,用以代替后面分句中的某一名词或整个分句的意思,而that和one则不能。
 (6) that可引导一个限制性定语从句,代替某个先行词(单复数名词均可),it和one则不能。例如:① A plane is a machine that can fly. (that指代先行词machine). 飞机是能飞的机器。② The students that don't study hard will no pass the examination. (that指代students)不努力学习的学生不会通过考试。
 (7) it可以代替不定式、动名词或从句,用作形式主语或形式宾语,而one和that则不能。例如:① It is a great pleasure to see you again. (it代替to see you again)见到你真高兴。② It is no use calling him up. (it代替calling him up) 给他打电话是没用的。③ We found it impossible that they would finis the work in two days. (it代替that they would finish the work in two days) 我发现两天后完成工作是不可能的。
25. Tides provide energy for the ecosystems, but estua- ries are protected from waves and storms by islands, mud or sand. 海潮为生态系统提供能量,河口则由于受到岛屿和泥沙的保护而免遭海浪和风暴的影响。(p.23 第二段 第3-4行)
 1) 动词provide的用法
▲provide意为"提供""借给",通常用"provide sb. with sth."或"provide sth. to/for sb."这两个结构,意为"向某人提供某物"。如:①The book will provide you with the information you need. 这本书会向你提供你所需的情况。 ② We provided him with lodging and food.我们向他们提供食宿。③ The sick were provided with blankets against cold. 给这些病人提供了御寒的毯子。④ His uncle provides money to John. 约翰的伯父给他钱。⑤ The forests provide shelter for wild animals.森林为野兽提供藏身之处。
 【注】provide与against连用。如: ① They had already provided against the attack. 他们已做好应付进攻的准备。 ② We have to provide against accidents. 我们必须做好应付事故的准备。
【注】provide的过去分词可引导条件状语从句,表示"如果""只要"。如:① You may keep the book a further week provided that no one else requires it. 只要没有别人要这本书,你还可借一个星期。② She may come with us provided (that) she arrives in time.如果她及时到达,她可能会和我们一道来。③We'll visit Europe next year, provided we have the money. 如果我们有这笔钱,我们明年将去欧洲。
【注】providing也可引导条件状语从句。如:① You may go out providing you do your homework first. 只要你先把作业做好,你就可以出去。② Providing (that) there is no oppositions, we shall hold the sports meet here. 如果没有人反对,我们将来这里开运动会。
 2) protect一词的用法
▲ protect意为"保护",后接介词from或against。如: ① Protect the baby's eyes from the sun. 保护孩子的眼睛,不要让太阳照射。 ② He raised his aln3 t0 protect his face from the blow. 他举起手臂护住脸,以免被这一拳打中。 ③ Put on a thicker coat to protect yourself from the cold. 穿件厚点的外衣以免冻着。④ The eyelashes protect the eyes from dust and dirt. 眼睫毛保护眼睛不让尘埃和脏东西进去。
【注】动词protect表示"保护......免受......",后用from或against都可以,但对于较大的事情如天灾等,介词一般用against。较小的事情用from。如上述例句①-④。
高二英语Unit14 Making a difference知识点总复习教案
Section I 课前准备、听力、口语
1. Martin Luther King. Jr formed an organization for American black leaders to work together in 1957. 马丁.路德.金在1957年组成了一个为黑人领袖们共同工作的组织。(P.25 Martin Luther King, Jr 第五点) ★ form vt.
 (1) vt. 组织,组成 He formed a class for beginners. 他成立了一个初学班。
 (2) vt. 形成(人格、精神);养成习惯 Group activities help to form a child's character. 团体活动对小孩的性格形成有帮助。
 (3) vt. & vi. 想出(计划、意见等),(希望,想法等的)产生I can't form an opinion about it. 这件事我想不出什么意见。An idea formed in his mind. 他心中产生了某种想法。
 (4) vt. 使......排队(成......) The captain formed soldiers into a line. 那位上尉让士兵排成一列。
 (5) n. [U, C] 形状,外形The cookies were all in the form of stars. 那些饼干的形状都像星星。
 (6)[C]形态,种类Different countries have different forms of government. 不同的国家有不同的政治形态。
 (7)[C]格式,表格纸 fill in the form 填写表格
 辨析:form,figure与shape
 form 应用最广,意义最不受限制,可指外在的形状或内在的形式等。the form of a square 正方形; literary form 文学形式figure 线条决定的形状、图案;可指人的身材。draw a figure of a circle 画个圆形; a slim figure 修长的身材shape 指外部的线条,但有较强的"团、块"概念。the shape of a bottle 瓶子的形状; work the clay into the shape of a woman 将陶土塑成一个女人的形状
 联想:(后缀) former adj. 从前的,早先的the former 前者 (与the latter相对) formative adj. 构成的,形成的
from prep. 自,从
 拓展:in form / on form 情况良好; out of form / off form情况不好
2. Nelson Mandela was put in prison from 1962 till 1989. Nelson Mandela 从1962年到1989年被投入监狱。(P.25 Nelson Mandela 第六点)
 ★ prison: put/throw/send sb. in (into) prison 将......送进监狱,注意:prison前不加冠词,表示较为抽象的概念。其被动形式为be put in (into) prison (被关进监狱). be sent to prison (被送进监狱); be thrown into prison (被投进监狱)。如:Law-breakers are put in/into prison. 犯法的人都要坐牢。The thief was sent to prison for a year. 那个小偷被送去坐了一年牢。He was put in prison/thrown into prison/sent to prison/taken to prison for political reasons. 由于政治原因,他被关进了监狱。Whoever refused to bow was thrown into prison. 任何拒绝鞠躬的人都被关进了监狱。
 拓展:go to prison 入狱; be out of prison 出狱; be in prison 在狱中; escape from prison 越狱; come out of prison 出狱; break prison 越狱
3. In 1850 a law was made to forbid people to help run- away slave. 1850年通过一项法律阻止人们帮助逃跑的奴隶。(P.26 Harriet Tubman 第三点)
 ★forbid (过去式forbade, forbad; 过去分词 forbidden) vt. "禁止;不许;阻止",常用的结构是:forbid + doing"禁止干某事";forbid + sb. to do sth."禁止某人干某事/阻止某人干某事。" Smoking is forbidden in our school. 我们学校禁止吸烟。If you want to go, I can't forbid you. 你想去,我也拦不住你。I forbid you to use my tape recorder. 我不许你用我的录音机。They forbid walking in the fields. 他们禁止在地里走。
注意:"阻止某人干某事"的说法还有:
 stop/prevent/keep sb. from doing sth.
 Parking forbidden! = No parking! 禁止停车!
联想:forbidden adj. 被禁止的,禁止的forbidding adj. 难以接近的;可怕的;令人生畏的,令人毛骨悚然的 forbiddingly adv. 难以接近地,令人毛骨悚然地
Section II 阅读
4. I HAVE A DREAM我有一个梦 (p. 28Reading 'title')
 ★ dream
 (1) vt. "做梦;梦见",后面可跟名词或that-clause。I dreamed my grandfather. 我梦见过我的祖父。He dreamed that he was flying to the moon. 他梦见他正在飞向月球。
注意:当dream表示"梦想到"时,常用于否定句中,后面可接带不定式的复合结构或that-clause(从句通常用将来时)。如:I never dreamed her to go to college. = I never dreamed that she would go to college. 我连做梦也没想到她会上大学。
 (2) vi."做梦;梦见;向往",常用的结构为:dream of + n. / doing sth.。She said that she had dreamed of you. 她说她梦见过你。The people all over the world dream of peace.全世界人民向往和平。
 (3) n."梦;心愿;愿望",为可数名词。Last night I had a good/bad/wonderful/strange dream. 昨晚我做了一个好/坏/美/奇怪的梦。His dream has come true. 他的愿望实现了。
5. Martin Luther King. Jr gave a speech to thousands of black people who marched on Washington DC. 马丁.路德.金给成千上万在华盛顿特区游行的黑人发表了演说。 (P.28 第一段第1-2行)
★on此处作介词,意为"朝向" "向......方向",是正式用语。如:① The workers marched on the Capital. 工人向国会大厦进发。②Take the first turning on your right.在第一个路口向右拐。③ Fortune smiled on his enterprise.他的企业兴旺发达。④ Ellen is eating,her eyes on her food. 海伦吃东西时两眼盯着食物。
 【注】on作副词用时,也有"向前"之意。如:① If you walk on, you'll come to the church. 如果你再向前走,就到教堂了。② If any letters come while you are away, shall I send them on? 如果你不在的时候有信来,我是不是要转寄给你? ③ The two strolled on, arguing. 两人辩论着往前溜达。④There's no use staying on. 继续呆下去没有用。
6. At that time in the southern states, blacks were not treated as equal citizens. 那时在南方各州黑人不被当作平等的公民对待。(P.28 第二段 第1-2行)
 ★ 动词treat与as或like连用,表示"把......当作......看待"。如:① They treated me as one of the family.他们把我当家里人看待。②Why do you treat the matter as a joke? 你为什么把这件事当作玩笑呢? ③They treated each other like brothers. 他们亲如手足。④ He didn't want to be treated as a distinguished guest. 他不愿别人把他当上宾对待。⑤ She treated me as if I were a child. 她把我当作小孩看待。
▲treat可作"探讨""处理""讨论"解。如:① This problem has been treated by many experts. 这个问题已有很多专家探讨过了。②The novel treats the subject of justice. 这部小说的主题是正义。③ The theme of the play is skillfully treated. 这个剧的主题处理得很巧妙。
▲treat亦有"款待""待客"之意。如:① Let me treat you to a good meal.我请你吃一顿好的吧! ②I think I'll treat myself to a holiday in Guilin next year.我想明年去桂林好好地度个假。③ He treated his friends to a soda, and they treated him to a movie.他请他的朋友们喝汽水,他们请他看电影。 【注】treat作上述"款待""待客"解释时,与介词to连用。
▲treat与of连用时,表示"论述""推论"。如:① The report treats of the progress of cancer research. 该报告论述了对癌症研究的进展情况。② He treats of his subject scientifically.他科学地论述了他的题目。③ This lecture treats of the history of Ireland. 这一讲座论述了爱尔兰的历史。
 【注】treat还可作"治疗"解释,请参见《1+1同步讲解》高二上册第228页。
7. King fought for political rights for black people in the USA. 金为美国黑人的政治权利而战斗。(P.28第三段第1行)
 ★ fight
 (1) vt. & vi. 打仗、打架、奋斗、战斗 如:Did your father fight in the last war? (fight作不及物动词) 你父亲参加上一次的战斗了吗? If we all fight (against) pollution, we'll have a cleaner world (fight作及物动词,不加介词) 如果我们都同污染作斗争,我们将拥有一个更干净的世界。They fought the enemy to the end. 他们同敌人战斗到底。
 (2) n. 战斗、搏斗、拳击赛The police were called in to stop the fight. 警察被叫来阻止这场争斗。The fight against pollution goes on. 反对污染的斗争在继续。
 辨析:fight against,fight with与fight for
 fight against意为"为反对......而战";fight with既可表示"和...作斗争",相当于fight against,也可表示"和......并肩作战";fight for意为"为争取......而斗争"。如:Who'll fight with you for better working conditions? 谁会和你一起为争取更好的工作条件而斗争? The slaves were fighting for their freedom. 奴隶们为争取自由而斗争。Two dogs fought for a bone,and a third runs away with it. 鹬蚌相争,渔翁得利。They fought against the Japanese during the Anti-Japanese War. 在抗日战争期间,他们曾经同日本人打过仗。You should be ready to fight against difficulties. 你们应该准备同困难作斗争。The slaves fought against / with the slave owners for their freedom. 奴隶们为了争取自由而和奴隶主们进行斗争。England fought with France against Germany in the First World War. 在第一次世界大战中,英国和法国一起为反对德国而战。
8. By doing this, he set all example to the rest sections of the world. 他以此给世界其他地区树立了榜样。(P.28 第三段 第1-2行)
★ by为介词,表示方式、方法、手法,现将其用法归纳如下:
 (1) by + n. (名词前无冠词)。如:by mail / post / fax / radio / telephone / telegraph / telegram...
 (2) by + doing结构。如:by increasing/speaking/teaching/begging... He earns his living by teaching. 他以教书为主。The six blind men made their living by begging. 那6个盲人靠要饭为生。
 (3) by + n. (表交通路线、工具的名词)。如:by land/road/rail/train/bus/jeep/car/taxi/truck/bike; by sea/water/ship/boat; by air/plane
 (4) by + n. (表面积、体积等的名词)。如:by area / volume / weight / length / width / height / depth...
 (5) by + the + n. (表度量衡的名词)。如:by the hour / day / week / month / year / kilogram / yard / metre...
 In England, sugar is sold by the pound, eggs by the dozen and cloth by the yard. 在英国,糖是按磅卖,蛋是按打卖,布是按码卖。
 ▲by和with都可以用来表示某人如何做某事,但这两个词之间有重要区别:by用于表示动作或方式,后跟动名词或抽象名词;而with 通常表示用的是什么工具或其他具体的东西。试比较: ① I killed the spider by hitting it. 我拍死了蜘蛛。(动作) ② I killed the spider with a notebook. 我用笔记本把蜘蛛打死了。(工具) ③ He got what he wanted by talking cleverly. 他由于说话灵巧而得到了他想要的东西。(动作) ④ He got what he wrested with flowers and chocolates. 他靠鲜花和巧克力得到了他想得到的东西。(具体的东西) ⑤ The street is lighted by electricity. 街道用电照明。(方式) ⑥ The street is lighted with lights.街道用电灯照明。(工具)
▲在被动语态的句子中,by表示执行动作的人或东西,with表示所用的工具。试比较下列句子:① Tile bird was killed by a cat. 那只吗是被猫弄死的。(猫是动作执行者) ② The bird was killed with a stone. 那只鸟是用石头打死的。(未说明执行者) ③ He was killed by a heart stone. (A stone fell and killed him.) 他被一块大石头砸死了。④ He was killed with a heavy stone. (someone used a stone to kill him.) 他是被人用石头砸死的。
 ★ rest意为"其余的人"或"剩余物",与定冠词连用,作主语时如代表复数名词,则谓语动词要用复数形式,如代表不可数名词,则谓语动词用单数形式。如:① These are mine; Robert, the rest are yours. 这些是我的,罗伯特,剩下的是你的。② Mary and Beth will go to the movies and the rest of the girls are to go shopping. 玛丽和贝思要去看电影,其余的女孩则要去购物。③ One of the books is written in Chinese, and the rest are English. 那些书中有一本是中文的,其余都是英文的。④ Only 55 percent of the raw material is canned. The rest is thrown away, or fed to cows.只有55%的原材料做了成罐头,其余的不是扔了就是成了牛的饲料。
9. His message was that black people should not be separated but should be treated with respect in the same way as other people. 他的理想是黑人不应该被分隔开,应该像其他人一样受到尊重。(P.28 第三段 第2-3行)
★本句中的表语从句中的动词用的是虚拟语气,当表示"要求..." "建 议""命令"这类意义的名词作主语时,其后的名词性从句应该用虚拟语气,动词形式为"should + 动词原形"或直接用动词原形,这类名词常见的有sug- gestion, proposal,demand,request,order,requirement,advice,idea等。如: ① The workers' requirement was that their working conditions be improved. 工人们的要求是他们的工作条件应得到改善。② Our decision is that the school (should) remain closed. 我们的决定是学校暂不开学。③ Sophia's idea was that they should lock up the home. 索菲娅的想法是把大门锁起来。④ Her suggestion was that they carry on their conversation in French.她的建议是他们用法语对话。
【注】上述例句①-④均是表语从句,下面是这类名词后的同位语从句,谓语动词也用"should+动词原形"或直接用动词原形。⑤ They were faced with the demand that this tax (should) be abolished.他们面对着废除这个税的要求。⑥ They expressed the wish that she (should) accept the award. 他们表示希望她接受这笔奖金。⑦ What do you think of the proposal that we (should) put on a play at the English evening? 你觉得要我们在英语晚会上演一个剧的建议怎么样? ⑧ The boss didn't accept the workers demand that their pay (should) be raised, so the strike went on.老板没有接受工人们增加工资的要求,所以罢工仍在继续。
 ★ the same...as... 意为"和......相同的",在这个结构中,as为关系代词,引导定语从句,在从句中,as可作主语、宾语或表语,作宾语时,as也不能省略。如:①This is the same person as we talked about yesterday. 这就是我们昨天谈论过的那个人。② Mary wears the same kind of glasses as Helen does. 玛丽戴着海伦常戴的那种眼镜。③ You have the same opinion as I have. 你的观点和我的观点是一样的。④ He gave the same answer as I did. 他给的答案和我的一样。
 【注】as还可以和such,so,as连用,构成定语从句。如:① They visited such places as they wanted to. 他们游览了想要游览的地方。② Such books as you have ale sold out. 你有的那种书已卖完了。③ Let's discuss only such questions as we are all interested in. 让我们只讨论我们感兴趣的问题。④ I felt a weight at my heart such as I had never had before.我感到心中有一种从未有过的沉重。⑤ Here is so heavy a stone as no one call remove.这里有一块重得没有人能移动的石头。⑥ The picture was so beautiful as drew many people's attention.这幅画太美了,吸引了很多人的注意力。⑦ Have you ever seen such beautiful gold fish as I bought yesterday? 你可曾见过像我昨天买的一样美的金鱼吗? ⑧ You will see as many children as come. 你将见到所有到来的孩子们。
 【注】除了和上述the same,such,so等搭配引导定语从句外,as也可以引起定语从句,这时,关系代词as常常代表主句的整个意思或部分意思。如:① He must be an Asian, as we can see from his looks.他肯定是亚洲人,这一点我们可以从他的外表看出来。② The football game was very exciting, as we had expected. 正如我们所料,足球赛非常令人激动。③ As is known to all, China is a developing country. 众所周知,中国是一个发展中国家。④ He didn't lose heart, as could be judged from his expression.他没有失去信心,这从他的表情中可以看出。⑤ Lincoln was killed in a theatre by an actor, as is described in this book. 正如这本书所描写的,林肯是在一家剧院里被一个演员谋杀的。
【注】as作为关系代词代表前面主句的意思,和which代表主句的意思很相似,但as有"正如"的涵义,而which没有。
10. ...where black people had equal rights and were free to live, study and work as they wished. 那儿的黑人享有同等的权利,能自由地按自己的意愿生活、学习和工作。(P.28 第四段 第3行)
★ be free to do sth. 意为"自由自在、不受拘束地做某事"。如:① You are free to go or stay as you please. 去或留随你的便。② Everyone is free to express himself. 每个人都可以畅所欲言。③ She is not free to marry because she has to look after her parents.她不能结婚,因为她必须照顾双亲。④ She felt free when she left home and moved to the city. 他离开家乡到城市后感到无拘无束。⑤ The prisoner will be set free next week. 那个囚犯在下周释放。
 【注】free还可解释为"免费的",相当于without payment of any kind,cost nothing。如:① "Are the drinks free?" "No, you have to pay for them." "这些饮料是不是免费的?""不,你必须付钱。" ② Anyone who buys this breakfast food gets a free gift of a small plastics toy. 购买这份早餐食物的人都可得到一件免费的塑料玩具。③ This is a free ticket for the concert. 这是一种免费的音乐会入场券。
 【注】free还可作"空闲的""未被利用的"解。如:① "Is this seat free?" "Yes, no one is using it.""这座位没人坐吗?""是的,没人坐。" ② She picked it up with her free hand. 她用闲着的那只手把它捡起来。③ The doctor will be free in ten minutes. Can you wait that long? 医生十分钟后有空,你能等一下吗?
 【注】 free from/of意为"不受...影响的"。如:① The old lady is never free from/of pain. 那位老太太从未摆脱过病痛。② She was free from all blame for the accident. 那次事故完全不能怪她。
 【注】free还可作副词用,意为"自由地""免费地""松动地"。如:① Don't let the dog ran free on the main road. 别让那条狗在大街上随便乱跑。② Babies are allowed to travel free on buses.婴儿可免费乘公共汽车。③ Two of the screws in this old wooden door have worked themselves free.那扇旧木门上的两颗螺丝钉松动了。
 【注】free还可作动词用,意为"使自由""免除""解放""使松动"。如:① The little boy freed the bird from its cage.那小男孩把笼子里的鸟放了。② I need to go out. Can you free me for an hour? 我需要出去一下,你能让我离开一小时吗? ③ At last he freed himself from debt. 他终于还清了债务。
 【注】 freely也是副词,但与free作副词时解释不同。freely意为"主动地...""慷慨地""坦率地""自由地"。如:① I freely admit that what I said just now was wrong. 我主动承认刚才我说的话错了。② He gives his time freely to help the school. 他用自己的大量时间来为学校办事。③ You can speak quite freely in front of me. I shan't tell anyone what you say. 你有话可坦率地对我说,我不会告诉任何人。
★ wish v. & n. 希望;意愿
 (1) wish用作及物动词,后可接不定式短语、不定式复合结构、双宾语及宾语从句。如:We wish to visit the Great Wall one day. 我们渴望有一天去长城参观。I wish you to finish your homework on time. 我希望你能按时完成作业。I wish you success. 祝你成功。
 (2) 当wish后跟that引导的宾语从句时,从句要用虚拟语气。如:① 在宾语从句中,表示现在不可能实现的愿望时,谓语动词用过去式(动词be的过去式用were)。② 表示过去未能实现的愿望时,谓语动词用过去完成式。③ 表示与将来事实可能相反的愿望时,谓语动词一般用"would/could+动词原形"。如:I wish it were spring all the year round. (= But in fact it is not spring all the year round.) 要是一年到头都是春天该多好啊。I wish I had your address. (= I'm sorry don't have your address.) 很遗憾我没有你的地址。She wishes she had been here last week. (=But in fact she wasn't here last week.)她想,要是她上星期在这里就好了。I wish they would come again tomorrow. (= But in fact they will not come again tomorrow.) 我但愿他们明天会再来。
 (3)当wish用作不及物动词时,常与介词for搭配。如:All of us wish for happiness. 我们都渴望幸福。
比较:hope表希望时所接从句用陈述语气,表示可能实现的愿望。试区别:I hope that it is true. 我希望这事是真的。I wish that it were true. 这事要是真的就好了。
11. All his life he believed that it was right and necessary to demand changes in society if people did not have their civil rights. 金一生都认为,如果老百姓没有民权的话,他们就应改而且必须要求进行社会改革。(P.28 第四段 第3-4行) ★ demand
 (1) vt. & n. 需要,需求 = to ask for sth. ;需要,需求 = to require, need;后面可跟名词,代词,不定式或从句。
注意:demand后接从句时,从句应用虚拟语气,即 (should) + 动词原形。例:The workers are demanding better pay. 工人们要求提高工资。I demand that John (should) go there at once. 我要求约翰立即去那儿。This sort of work demands great patience. 这种工作需要极大的耐心。
 (2) n. 多用作可数名词,表示"要求、请求、需求、需要"。如:It's impossible to satisfy all your demands. 满足你所有的要求是不可能的。The workers' demands for high pay were refused by employers. 工人们想提高工资的要求遭到雇主们的拒绝。
辨析:demand,ask,beg与require
  这四个动词均表示"要求"。
  ask通常表示在感到其要求可能能得到满足的情况下提出要求;beg表示一再恳切地提出要求;demand表示以强硬、断然的口吻提出要求;require表示有需要或有权力提出要求。如:She asked me to wake her at five. 她要我5点叫醒她。She begged not to be left at home. 她恳求不要把她留在家里。She demanded an answer of me. 她要求我给予答复。She required every man here to wear a tie. 她要求这里每个男人都戴领带。
拓展:in demand非常需要的、受欢迎的;on demand一经要求 如:These silk goods are not much in demand. 这些丝织品没有多少销路。Passengers must show their tickets on demand. 查票时,旅客需出示车票。
12. King led a boycott of the bus company. 金领导黑人对公交公司进行了联合抵制。(P.28 第五段 第2-3行)
 ★ lead
 (1) vt. 领导、带领、引导 常用的结构为:lead sb. to some place和lead sb. in doing sth.。如:He led us to a room upstairs. 他把我们领到楼上的一个房间里。
 (2) vi. 通向、导致 常用词组为lead to。如:All roads lead to Rome. 条条大路通罗马。Carelessness leads to failure. 粗心导致失败。
 (3) vt. 过(某种生活)。如:We are leading a happy life. 我们正过着幸福生活。
 拓展:led by...在......的领导下;under the leadership of sb. 或under sb.'s leadership 在某人的领导下。如:Led by the Party, we have had great changes in our hometown. 在党的领导下,我们的家乡发生了巨大的变化。
 (4) n. [U] 领先、带头。gain/have the lead in the race 在赛跑中领先; take the lead 带头; with him in the lead 在他的带动下
13. He led many non-violent demonstrations against the racial discrimination and the Vietnam War, ... 他领导了许多次反种族歧视和反对越南战争的非暴力示威游行。 (P.28 第五段 第5-6行)
 ★ against
 (1) 反对,逆 He swam against the stream. 他逆流游泳。They sailed against the wind. 他们顶着风航行。
 (2)撞击;碰着 He hit against a tree. 他撞在一棵树上。Rain beats against the window. 雨打在窗户上。
 (3)紧靠,倚在 A piano stood against the wall. 靠墙放着一架钢琴。He put the ladder against the wall. 他把梯子靠在墙上。
 (4) 以......为背景,与......对比 The picture looks good against that light wall. 在浅色墙壁的衬托下,这幅画很好看。A ship appeared against the sky. 一艘船出现在天边。
 (5)防备He saved money against old age. 他攒钱防老。Squirrels store up food against winter. 松鼠贮藏食物以备过冬。
 拓展:be against 表示"反对",其同义词组是object to,反义词是be for,be in favour of,support。如:I knew she was against us. 我知道她反对我们。Are you against or for the plan? 你是反对这个计划还是赞成这个计划?
14. Martin Luther King Jr. was murdered in 1968. 马丁·路德·金于一九六八年被谋杀。(P.28 第八段 第1行)
 ★ murder意为"谋杀""凶杀",既可以作动词,也可以作名词,作名词时意为"凶杀案",是可数名词。如:① There's something about the murder in today's news- paper. 今天的报纸上刊登了这个谋杀案的一些情况。② Police ale still looking for the murder weapon.警察们仍在寻找谋杀用的凶器。③ There happened two murders this month in the town. 这个镇上本月发生了两起凶杀案。④ One day, a man was murdered in the street. 有一天,一个人在街上被谋杀了。
【注】请注意murder与kill的区别,kill是个普通的词,意为"造成 (任何生物)死亡",其主语可以是人,也可以是物或大自然;而murder的意思是"谋杀",是有目的、有预谋的行为。试比较:① My uncle was killed in a plane crash. 我叔父在飞机失事中遇难。② The cold weather killed our tomato plants. 寒冷的天气冻坏了我们种的西红柿。③ She was sent to prison for murdering her husband. 她因谋杀丈夫而被关进监狱。
▲murder还可作"因缺乏技术或知识而损毁"解。如:① He murdered a piece of music. 他把一支曲子演奏得不成样子。② Do you ever murder the English language? 你有没有胡乱使用英语? ③ It's a beautiful song, but they murdered it. 这首歌很动听,但他们唱砸了。
【注】murder在非正式用法中,可解释为"极艰难的事"。如:① At last I repaired the clock, but it was murder getting the pieces back in.我终于把钟修好了,但把所有的零件重新装好,可真是一件艰难的事。
15. If you were asked to move paragraph 1 to another place in the reading passage, where would it best fit in. 如果要求你把第一段移到文章的另一个地方,你认为哪里最合适。(P. 29 Post-Reading No.2)
★ fit in意为"(使)适合""配合",常与with连用。如:① I've filled the box, and all the books fit in nicely. 我已装好了箱子,所有的书都放下了。② The home fits in beautifully with its surroundings.这房子同它周围的环境非常协调。 ③ Your ideas fit in with mine.你的想法跟我一样。④She joined the club but didn't seemed to fit in,so she left. 她参加了那俱乐部,但不适应,所以退出了。⑤ The piece of evidence does not fit in with that of the other witness. 这一证据同另一证人提供的不一致。
▲fit in可作"安排时间或地方"解。如:①I'm sure you can fit me in somewhere.我相信你能找个地方安排我。② Sorry, I can't fit in any more callers this morning. 对不起,今天上午我不能再接待更多的来访者了。③ I think one can fit in an additional room behind the kitchen. 我想我们可以在厨房后面辟出一间房间。
Section III 词汇、语法、综合技能
16. He is known as a freedom fighter for equal rights of black people in America. 他被认为是为了美国黑人平等权利而斗争的自由斗士。(P.30 Grammar EX.1 Example )
 ★ be well-known for,be well-known as及famous的异同 ▲be well known for和be well known as都有"以......而著称"之意,但前者表示主语以某一方面著称,而后者则意为主语作为一个整体以什么著称。请阅读下面例句,体会其中的差别:① Martin Luther King was well-known for fighting for equal rights for blacks.马丁·路德金以为黑人的平等权利战斗而著称。② Martin Luther King was well-known as a freedom fighter. 马丁·路德金以一名自由战士而著称。③ Beijing is well-known for the Great Wall, the Summer Palace and some other places of interest.北京因长城、颐和园和其他名胜著称。④Beijing is well-known as a beautiful city. 北京以一个美丽的城市而著称。⑤ Lu Xun was well-known for his essays.鲁迅以他的杂文著称。 ⑥ Lu Xun was well-known as a great writer and thinker. 鲁迅作为一个伟大的作家和思想家而著称。
【注】well-known的近义词是famous。famous是个普通词,使用最广泛,多用于褒义。侧重好名声,语义比well-known强;读上面的几个例句中well-known可用famous替代。well-known通常与名声好坏无关,也表示"广为人知"。下面的句子中,well-known不能用famous替代。如:① It is well-known that bamboo shoot is a panda's main food.众所周知竹笋是熊猫的主食。② It's a well-known fact that smoking can cause lung cancer. 吸烟可导致肺癌,这是众所周知的事实。
17. Freedom fighters can be found everywhere, and they are of all times. 只有战士到处都有,他们属于所有时代。(P. 30 第一段 第1行)
★ 再谈"be + of + 名词": 关于"be + of + 名词",我们在高二上册已作过分析,这里我们从另一角度来阐述一下。介词of在这里表人或物的特征,这是of的一种最常见的用法,只不过在这里是用在be动词之后作表语。构成了我们所要谈的这个结构,而在其他情况下,多用在名词后作定语,也表示人或物的特征。如:① The work I am doing is of much value. 我做的工作很有价值。(表语) ② This is the work of much value. 这是一件很有价值的工作。(定语) ③ They were both of middle height. 他们两人都是中等身材。(表语) ④ Tom's father is a man of middle height. 汤姆的父亲是中等身材。(定语) ⑤ The manager is of the same opinion. 经理也持同样看法。(表语) ⑥ He is a man of progressive views.他是个有进步观点的男子。(定语) ⑦ That's one true act of friendship. 这是一个真正的友好行动。(定语) ⑧ The act is of true friendship. 这个行动是真正友好的。(表语)
 ★ time
 1) n. 常用复数。时代,时期,有时特指某些艰苦的时期。in modern times是一个固定词组,意思是"在现代/近代"。time在指"时代"时常用复数。如:The times are different now。but he still lives in the past. 时代不同了,但他仍生活在过去。In ancient times, man lived on wild plants and wild beasts. 古代的人们靠野果和野兽生存。Some people were lucky to have lived through the hard times of the war. 有些幸运的人从艰难的战争年代熬了过来。Country music is one of the most popular music in modern times. 乡村音乐是当今最流行的音乐之一。
 2) n. 次数,常以词组的形式出现
 (1)at a time 每次、一次 You can borrow two books at a time. 每次你可以借两本书。
 (2) at one time 曾经、一度、过去某个时期 At one time we met frequently. 有一个时期我们常常见面。
 (3) at any time任何时候、随时 You may drop in at any time. 欢迎您随时光临。
 (4) at no time决不、在任何时候都不 At no time will China be the first to use nuclear weapons. 中国在任何时候都不首先使用核武器。
注意:at no time位于句首时,句子常倒装。
 (5) at the same time 同时、尽管如此The two visitors arrived at the same time. 两位来访者同时到达。
 (6) at times 有时、间或I do feel a little nervous at times.有时,我的确感到有点儿紧张。
 (7) after a time 过了一段时间,过一会儿。常与非延续性动词的一般过去时连用。After a time she came back with a basket in her hand. 过了一会儿,她手里提着一个篮子回来了。
 (8) behind time 在原定时间以后,迟到 The train is ten minutes behind time. 火车晚点10分钟。
 (9) for a time一段时间、一会儿、暂时、一度。常与延续性动词连用。He rested for a time and went on with his work. 他休息了一会儿,又继续工作了。
 (10) from time to time 不时地,有时Even though the Smiths have moved, we still see them from time to time.虽然史密斯一家已经搬走,我们仍然时常见到他们。
 (11) time and time again = time after time 多次、反复Thousands of people have proved it time and time again.成千上万的人反复证明了这一点。
 (12) in time 及时、迟早We were just in time to catch the bus. 我们正好赶上那班公共汽车。
 (13) on time准时、按时He seldom goes to work on time. 他很少按时上班。
 (14) in no time立刻、很快 I'll be back in no time. 我很快就回来。
 (15) at all times 无论何时、一直We should at all times be aware of our own shortcomings. 我们应该时时清楚地看到我们自己的短处。
 (16) in time of...在......时候These ants act as guards and soldiers in time of trouble. 这些蚂蚁在遇到麻烦的时候就担当警卫和士兵。
 (17) in one's spare time 在某人的业余时间里He often goes swimming in his spare time. 业余时间,他经常去游泳。
 (18) all the time 一直、始终They were there all the time. 他们自始至终都在那儿。
 (19) have a good time 玩得很高兴He had a good time during the holidays. 他假期过得很愉快。
 (20) take one's time 不着急、慢慢来Take your time, don't work too hard. 别着急,不要太辛苦了。
18. From the late 18th to well into the 19th century different groups of people struggled for their rights. 从十八世纪后期到进入十九世纪,很多不同的人们为他们的权利而斗争。(P. 30 第二段 第1-2行)
★ well此处为副词,表示程度常用来修饰介词短语。如:① He's well past forty. 他已四十好几了。② The necklace is worth well over a thousand dollars. 这条项链的价钱远远超过一千美金。③ The students of the senior high school numbered well over five thousand 这所高中的学生大大超过五千人。④ It's well past six o'clock. Let's hurry. 六点多了。快点吧。
【注】well表示程度时,也可修饰部分形容词或副词。如:① He's well advanced in his years. 他年纪相当大了。 ⑥ They were well down in front. 他们坐得很靠前。⑦ The wheat is well forward now. 小麦已经长得相当高了。 ⑧ The film is well worth seeing. 这电影很值得一看。
 ★ struggle
 (1) n. [C]挣扎,努力,搏斗Each age has its own struggle for rights. 每个时期都会为争得权力而努力。Don't give up without a struggle. 不要未经努力就放弃。
 (2) vi. 挣扎着进行,艰苦进行We struggled through the crowd. 我们在人群中挣扎前进。
拓展:struggle for 为......而挣扎,努力; struggle with/against 为反对......而挣扎,搏斗
 ★ right
 (1) n. 权利;正确性。在表示"做某事的权利"时,常用作可数名词;在表示"正义,正确性"时,常用作不可数名词。如:Everyone has a right to speak out his mind.大家都有权利把自己的想法讲出来。Dr King fought for the human rights of the blacks.金博士为争取黑人的人权而斗争。He is too young to tell right from wrong. 他太年轻,还无法区别正确与错误。
 (2) right作"正确"讲时,其反义词为"wrong";作"右边"讲时,其反义词为"left"。
19. These struggles started with the ideas of the French Revolution and the American War of Independence. 这些斗争起源于法国大革命和美国独立战争的理想。(P. 30 第二段 第2行)
★start with意为"以...开始""从...善手""开头有"。如:① Our group had five members to start with. 我们小组开始时有五个人。② His illness started with a slight cough. 他的病开始时只是轻微的咳嗽。③ We'll now hear the students read their poems, starting with Tom.我们现在听学生们朗读诗歌,从汤姆开始。④ Westerners start the meal with soup. 西方人吃饭先喝汤。
【注】start with可作"开始时""首先"解释,这时常作插入语。如:①You have no right to raise this question, to start with.首先,你们无权提这个问题。②Our difficulties are many; to start with, we can't get the workers. 我们有许多困难,首先是找不到工人。③To start with, the day was fine, but then it turned showery. 开始时天气很好,可是后来下起雨来了。
【注】to start with也可作状语。如:① They paid him only five dollars a week to start with.开始时,他们每周只给他五美金的工资。② We had no blueprints and no material to start with. 开始时,我们没有图纸没有材料。 ③The school bought a big basket of seeds for us to start with. 学校先给我们买了一大篮子的种子。
20. There were famous books about the rights of man and later the rights of woman. 有很多著名的书籍讨论人权,以及后来的女权的问题。(P. 30 第二段 第3行)
 ▲later
 (1) adj. 较迟的,较后的 (? earlier) Let's take a later train. 我们搭晚一点的火车吧。
 (2) adv. 较迟地,较后地 (? earlier) He came later than usual. 他比平常来得晚。See you later. 回头见,再见。
辨析:late,later,lately与latest
 late adj. & adv. 迟到的,晚的;later是late的比较级形式,意思为"稍后,后来,在某事之后"。lately adv. 相当于recently;表示"最近,没多长时间"等。latest是late的最高级,意为"最近的,最新的"等。例:He often goes to bed late and gets up late. 他总是晚睡晚起。That happened in the late 1870s. 这事发生在19世纪70年代末。He returned three days later than expected. 他比原来预料的晚回来了3天。What did the latest news say? 最新消息是怎么说的? I haven't heard of him lately. What's happened? 最近没听到他的消息,不知怎么回事?
21. In the nineteenth century, women all over the world, st6arted asking for equal rights. 在19世纪,全世界的妇女开始要求平等权利了。(P. 31 第二段 第5行)
 ★ ask for的意思和用法
(1) ask for在此处作"要求得到""需要"解。如:① He asked for time to think all this over. 他要求给他点时间,把这一切仔细想一想。② The employees asked for an increase in their pay. 员工们要求提高工资。③ Everything that was asked for has now been sent.所要的东西现在全送去了。④ If you get into difficulties, don't hesitate to ask for advice.你要是碰到困难,赶紧向人求教。
(2) ask for有"求见""找(某)人"之意。如:① Mr Smith, a lady is asking for you at the door. 史密斯先生,门口有位女士要找您。② Has anyone asked for me during my absence? 我不在时有人找过我吗? ③ He is not the man you are asking for. 他不是你要找的人。④Just now someone asked for you on the phone. 刚才有人打电话找你。
 (3) ask sb. for sth. 有"向某人要某物"之意。如:① Why don't you go and ask her for help? 你为何不去找她帮忙? ② They asked us for our impressions of the fair. 他们要我们谈谈对交易会的印象。
22. What all these groups have in common is that they ask to be treated with respect, ... 所有这些群体的共同要求是受到尊重,... (P. 31 第三段 第4行)
★ in common意为"共用...'共有...'共同"(如要表示"与......共有(用)",后接介词with等)。如:① Freedom fighters in history had something in common, that is they fought for freedom of most people, not few.历史上的自由战士有共同点,那就是他们为大多数人的自由而斗争,不是为少数人。② The swimming pool is used in common by all the children in the town. 这个游泳池供镇上所有的孩子共同使用。③ To my surprise, I found I had a lot in common with this stranger. 令我惊讶的是,我发现我与这陌生人有很多相似之处。④ Their methods have a lot in common.他们的方法有很多相似之处。⑤ He had little in common with his little sister. 他与妹妹没有多少共同之处。⑥ In common with most Italian lakes, access to the shores of Orta is restricted. 和大多数的意大利湖一样,进入奥培湖泊受到限制。⑦ In common with most people, he prefers classical music to pop music. 和大多数人一样,他喜欢古典音乐,不喜欢流行音乐。
23. But in the twentieth century organizations were formed to give voice to groups that do not have a voice to speak for themselves. 但是在20世纪成立了一些组织为那些无法出声说话的群体代言。(P. 31 第四段 第3行)
★ give voice to意为"提出(意见)""吐露(感情)"。如:① Only Jack dared to give voice to his discontent.只有杰克敢于表达他的不满。② He gave voice to his anger in his letter to me.他在给我的信中表达了他的愤怒。
 【注】有关voice的词组很多,常见的有:
 raise one's voice放大声音讲话,
 with one voice异口同声地,
 at the top of one's voice高声地,
 lose one's voice发不出声音,
 keep one's voice down说话声要小一点等等。
 如:① I don't want to have to raise my voice to you again. 我不想再对你大声嚷嚷。② Keep your voice down, and don't wake up the sleeping child.声音小一点,不要吵醒熟睡的小孩。③ With one voice, they agreed to go on strike. 他们一致同意继续罢工。④ He gave lessons at the top of his voice.他放开嗓门讲课。⑤ I've got a bad cold, and I've lost my voice. 我得了重感冒,嗓子都发不出声来了。
24. at first sight 乍一看, 初见之下 (P.32 Tips 第一点)
 At first sight their demands seemed reasonable. 乍看之下,他们的要求似乎是合理的。
拓展:与sight相关的常见短语:
 (1) lose one's sight失去视力;丧失视力The poor boy lost his sight at the age of five. 这个可怜的男孩5岁时就失去了视力。
 (2) catch sight of (突然)看见 I was walking along the country road when I caught sight of a fox catching a cock in its mouth. 我正在乡间小路上走着,突然看见一只狐狸嘴里叼着一只公鸡。
 (3) lose sight of 看不见 We lost sight of the birds, for they flew high above the sky. 我们看不见那些鸟了,因为它们在天空中飞得很高。
 (4) in/within sight在视野之内;看得见We looked to the south and the train was in/within sight. 我们向南望去,看见了那列火车。
 (5) out of sight 在视野之外,看不见He stood at the airport and looked until the plane was out of sight in the sky.他站在机场上看着,直到飞机消失在空中。
 (6) have good/bad/poor sight视力好,视力不好 have near/short sight患近视; I have good sight. 我视力很好。
高二英语Unit15 Destinations知识点总复习教案
1. You may explain, apologise or argue as you see fit. 在你认为合适的时候,你可以解释,道歉活辩论。(p. 34 Speaking 第一格 Student B)
 ★ see fit意为"认为正确、合适""愿意""决定",如要表示"认为做某事合适",应在see fit后加动词不定式。如:① I don't see fit to tell him all our plans. 我们的全部计划告诉他,我看不太合适。② You may stay on if you Bee fit to do so. 果你愿意的话,可以在这里继续呆下去。③ I don't know why they see fit to leave so suddenly.我不明白,他们为什么决定这样突然走掉。④ You may arrange everything as you see fit. 一切,你觉得怎么办好就怎么办。⑤ For some reason, they saw 6t to exclude him from the invitation list. 由于某种原因,他们觉得不把他列入邀请名单为好。⑥ They saw fit to employ someone else. 他们觉得雇佣别人更合适。
2. I will look into it immediately. 我会马上调查这件事。(p.34 Useful expressions)
 ★ look into意为"调查""了解""研究"。如:① The police are looking into the records of all these involved in the crime. 警方正在查阅所有卷入这一犯罪事件的人的档案。② The police are looking into possible causes of the accident. 警方正在调查事故的原因。③ Your complaint is being looked into. When we have anything to report we will write to you again. 你的申诉我们正在处理,如有可以奉告之处,会再给你写信。④ The manager has promised that he will look into the matter at once. 经理答应会马上调查此事。
 【注】 see into还有"调查""了解"之意。如:⑤ I will see into this business. 我去了解一下这事。⑥ Will you please go and see into the problem? 请你去调查一下这个问题好吗?
 【注】 但see into还有"看出""察觉""看破"之意,而look into无此意。如:⑦ I wish I had the gift of seeing into people's hearts. 我希望拥有看出人们内心世界的本领。⑧ It's difficult for me to see into his full meaning. 我很难弄懂他的全部意思。⑨ He began to return to health when he was able to see into the causes of his trouble. 在他能够认清自己疾病根源后他开始恢复健康了。
3. Every now and then, we get the itch to travel.我们时不时会有去旅游的强烈愿望。(p.35 第一段 第1行)
 ★ get / have an itch for sth. / to do sth. 渴望(做)某事。如:① The boys had an itch for the lessons to end so as to play hide-and-seek男孩子们急着想早点下课去玩捉迷藏。② Go on, I know you have an itch to tell me. 快点,我知道你迫不及待地想告诉我。③ He has an itch for personal fame and gains. 他追名逐利。④ The boys and girls in the mountain village have an itch for knowledge.
这个山村里的孩子们渴望知识。
 ★ itch可作动词用,意为"渴望""急于"。如:⑤ The general Was itching for fight. 将军渴望打仗。⑥ He itched to tell his friends the news. 他急于要把这消息告诉他的朋友们。
 * itch作名词时,也可以单独使用。如:⑦ The itch to travel began in his childhood. 早在童年时代他就渴望旅行。⑧ His itch for adventure made his parents worried.他渴望冒险,这使他的父母很担心。
4. Should you feel the urge to pack your bags and explore what the world has offer, you may went to consider one of the destinations below. 如果你感觉到有一种背起背包探索世界的冲动,你也许会考虑下面的一个目的地。(p.35 第一段 第2 - 3 行)
 ★ 这是一个与将来可能发生的事实相反的虚拟语气,条件句中的谓语用倒装句式,省去了连词if,而把should放在句首,在虚拟条件句中,如谓语动词中有should,were,had时,可将其移至句首,省去if。如:① Had I not seen it with my own eyes, I would not have believed it.要不是我亲眼所见,我就不会相信了。② Should you change your mind, no one would blame you. 万一你改变主意,谁也不会怨你。③ Were she here, she would support your suggestion. 如果她在这里,她会支持你的建议。④ Should I be free tomorrow, I would come. 万一明天我有空,我会来。⑤ Had I known your address, I would have written before. 我要是知道你的地址,我早就给你写信了。
 ★ urge此处是名词,意为"冲动""强烈的愿望",常跟have,feel等动词搭配。如:① He had a sudden urge to go to Italy. 他突然很想到意大利去。② Mr Turner had an urge to open a shop of his own. 特纳先生有一种强烈的愿望要开办自己的商店。
 【注】urge也可用作动词,意为"督促""要求""促使",后接不定式作宾语,或用urge sb. to sth. 结构。如:③ we urged our guests to stay for dinner. 我们坚持留客人吃饭。④ I urge him to an explanation. 我极力请求他作出解释。⑤ The teacher urged us to hand in our exercises.老师催促我们交作业。
 【注】urge可作"强烈""极力主张"解释,表示"向某人强调",常用urge on sb.。如:① The teacher urged on her students the importance of hard work. 这位教师对她的学生强调努力学习的重要性。② The doctor urged on his patients the need for regular physical check-ups. 这位医生向他的病人强调定期体验的重要性。
 ★ consider此处意为"考虑",后接名词、代词、动名词或从句。如:⑥ Consider the matter carefully before making up your mind. 在你作出决定之前,对此事要仔细考虑一下。⑦ I first considered writing to him, but then decided to go and see him. 起先我考虑写信给他,后来决定去看他。⑧ Simon is considering going to Paris. 西蒙在考虑去巴黎。⑨ Have you considered how you could achieve your purpose?你考虑过如何能达到你的目的吗?
 【注】consider后可跟不定式,但必须是"疑问词+不定式",不可直接跟不定式。如:① I'm consider how to write my report. 我在考虑怎么写我的报告。② Before she could consider what to do, her mother came in. 她还没来得及考虑怎么办,她母亲进来了。
 【注】consider可作"认为"解释,一般后面跟从句,复合宾语或带不定式的复合结构。如:③ Most people consider him honest. 大多数人都认为他诚实。④ I consider it my duty to tell the truth. 我认为有责任来说明真相。⑤ We don't consider that Jack is to blame. 我们认为不应该怪杰克。⑥ It is generally considered not advisable to act that way. 那样做一般认为是不可能的。
5. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil's second largest city, stretches itself lazily along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. 里约热内卢,巴西第二大城市。沿着大西洋海岸悠闲地展开她的身姿。(p.35 Rio De Janeiro 第一段 第1 - 2 行)
 ★ stretch意为"延伸""绵延"不仅是指地点的延伸也可指时间的延伸。如:① The plain stretches up to the base of the mountain. 平原一直延伸到山脚下。② This line of mountains stretches all the way from the United States to Canada. 这条山脉从美国一直延伸到加拿大。③ The Qing Dynasty stretched from 1644 to 1911. 清朝从1644年延续到1911年。④ My shoes being tight, I hope they will stretch. 我的鞋太紧,我希望能撑大些。⑤ Stretch a rope between these two trees. 在这两棵树之间拉一根绳子。⑥ What are you stretching your neck for? Can't you see well? 你伸长脖子干什么?你看不清吗? ⑦ You ale stretching my patience to the limit. 你把我的耐心都耗尽了。⑧ Perhaps the sweater will fit you if you stretch it. 如果你把毛衣抻一抻,也许就合身了。
 ▲coast,shore与beach的区别
【注】coast是指海岸线,通常是指从这处看到的海洋与陆地的分界线;或把这一分界线作为一个整体来看待。如:① I live ten miles from the coast. 我住的地方离海岸十英里。② Looking down from the plane, we could see the Dutch coast. 我们从飞机上往下看,可以看到荷兰的海岸线。③ There are numerous islands off the coast. 海岸边有许多岛屿。④ A ship sank two miles off the coast.一艘船在离岸两英里处沉没。beach指海滩,相对比较平坦,覆盖着沙子或碎石,适宜游泳,日光浴,或停靠小船。如:① They walked for a while along the beach. 他们沿海滩走了一会儿。② I like lying on the beach looking at girls. 我喜欢躺在沙滩上看周围的姑娘们。【注】beach可作动词用,意思说"使......冲滩"。如:③ The boat has been beached near the rocks. 那小船已被冲到沙滩上。shore是一个较为笼统的说法,主要指"海岸""海滨",既可以包括beach,也可以指岩石或陡峭的岸边。如:① We found many shells on the sea-shore. 我们在海岸上找到许多贝壳。② We spend all our weekends at the shore. 我们的周末都在海滨度过。
6. A trip to Rio will also give you a glimpse of the happy lifestyle of cariocas ... 到里约去走一趟,你还能看到里约人的快乐的生活方式... (p.35 Rio De Janeiro 第一段 第4 - 5 行)
 give / have a glimpse of一瞥...; 一看
 ★ glimpse意为"一瞥...; 一看",常与have,give,catch等动词连用。如:① I only caught a glimpse of the driver. 我只瞥了那个司机一眼。② She drew aside the window curtain and had a glimpse of the river. 她把窗帘拉向一边,瞥了一眼小河。③ He caught a glimpse of a young couple lying on the grasslands looking at the blue sky. 他看见一对年轻人躺在草地上望着蓝色的天空。
 【注】glimpse与glance都表示"匆匆一瞥",但glance只意味着"看",而glimpse还意味着"看见",glimpse往往是glance的结果,如:He gave a glance at the stranger意为"他打量了一下那个陌生人"。He caught a glimpse of the stranger. 意思是"他瞥见了那个陌生人"。前句表示动作,后句表示动作的结果。
 【注】glimpse也可作动词用,意思与作名词时相同。如:④ I glimpsed the fails as our train went by. 火车驶过时,我瞥见了瀑布。⑤ He glimpsed at the letter, then threw it impatiently aside. 他把信粗略地看了一眼,便不耐烦地丢到了一边。⑥ He only glimpsed at my new bag and said nothing. 他只看了一下我的新包,什么也没说。
 【注】glimpse也可引申为"了解""开始理解"。如:① He glimpsed the despair that she felt. 他突然间理解了她那绝望的感觉。② She glimpsed something of what life ought to be about. 她开始领悟到人生应该是怎么回事。
7. Visitors who get tired of the sand and the sun can cool off in one of the many cafes ... 游客们在沙滩上阳光下玩的厌烦了就可以到...的许多咖啡馆...里边凉快一下。(p.35 Rio De Janeiro 第三段 倒数第2 行)
 ★ get/be tired of意思是"对...厌烦",get是连系动词,常见的系动词还有become,grow等。如:① My uncle was tired of living abroad. 我叔叔厌倦了国外的生活。② Finally she got tired of drawing this kind of picture.最后这种画她都画烦了。③ I'm tired of your lame excuses. 我对你蹩脚的借口烦透了。 ④ She grew tired of talking to these people.和这些人谈话,她已经厌烦了。
 【注】be tired of 意为"对......厌烦",be tired from 则表示"由于......而累",偶尔也用介词with。如:⑤ You're tired enough from caring for me. 你照顾我,够累的了。⑥ Are you tired from flowing? 你划累了吧? ⑦ Tired from my journey, I went to bed early. 由于旅途劳累,我很早就睡了。⑧I'm very tired with that long walk. 走了这么长一段路,我非常累。
 【注】 tire是动词,原意是"使...疲倦""使...厌烦"。如:① I mustn't tire you too much. If you want anything, just let me know. 我不能让你太累了,如果你要什么,告诉我好了。② The ceremony was short so as not to tire them. 仪式很简短,以免使他们疲劳。
 【注】tire...out是"使......筋疲力尽"之意。如:① He tired us with his long speeches. 他冗长的讲话使人厌烦。② If driving tires you, take the train. 如果开车累,就乘火车吧。③ All that running around tires me out. 这么跑来跑去真把我累垮了。④ I'm tired out. I think I'll go to bed.我已疲倦至极,想上床休息。
 【注】tire也可作不及物动词用,tire of可以无被动式,意为"对...感到厌倦"与be tired of意思差不多。如:① I'm sure she'll soon tire of football. 我肯定她很快就会对足球感到厌倦的。② Sooner or later she may tire of eating fish. 早晚她会吃鱼吃腻的。
 ★ cool off 意思是"变凉快""凉下来",也可以说cool down。如:① They cooled off from the heat after a swim.
游泳之后他们感到凉快了。② The hot water cooled off gradually. 热水慢慢冷却了。③ Don't be in such a haste. Let your tea cool down a little before you drink it. 不要这样急,等茶凉一点再喝。
 【注】cool off可引申为"变冷静"之意。如:④ Wait till he cools off. 等他冷静下来再说。
 【注】上述例句中的cool off或cool down是作不及物动词用的。cool off也可当作及物动词用。如:⑤ A shower cooled me off a little. 冲了个澡以后,我觉得凉快了一些。⑥ I tried to cool them all down, but they were too angry. 我想使他们都平静下来,但是他们怒气太大一时.消不了。
8. Located in southern Austria, Kitzbuhel is a paradise for skiers. 基茨比厄尔位于奥地利南部,是滑雪运动爱好者的天堂。(p.36第一段 第2 - 3 行)
 ★ locate在本课中是及物动词,意为"设置于""位于",常以被动语态或过去分词短语形式出现。如:① The office is located in this building. 办事处设在这座楼里。② Our new cultural centre will be located here. 我们新的文化中心将设在这里。③ Geographically, that country is located in the Southern Hemisphere. 从地理上说,那个国家位于南半球。④Located near the railway station, the company is easy to find. 这家公司位于火车站附近,很容易找到。
 【注】locate还有"找出或指出(位置)"之意。如:⑤We can't locate the village on the map. 我们在地图上找不到这村庄。⑥ We think we have located the source of the problem.我们认为我们已找到了问题的根源。⑦ They couldn't locate the enemy, so they sent planes over hunting for them. 他们没能找到敌人的所在地点,因此他们派飞机去寻找。⑧ The four of us followed the stream until we located its source. 我们四个沿着溪流走,直至找到了它的源头。
 【注】locate有两个名词,location和locality,前者意为"地点""位置",后者作"地区"解。如:① The location of the house is near the highway. 房子的地点靠近公路。② There are no hotels in this locality. 在这个地区没有旅馆。③ A post office should be built in a central location.邮局应盖在中心的位置。④ The two factories are in the same locality. 两家工厂都在同一个地区。
9. The town offers many shops and cafes and a wide variety of entertainment.镇上有许多商店和咖啡馆以及各种各样的娱乐活动。(p.36最后一段 第1 - 2 行)
 ★ offer意为"提供""提出"。如:① The college offers courses in Russian. 该大学设有俄语课程。② May I offer an opinion on this question? 我可以就这个问题提个意见吗? ③ Why didn't you take the seat he offered you? 你为什么不坐他让给你的位子? ④He kindly offered me a ride. 他热情地要我搭他的车。
 【注】offer可作"表示愿意"解释,作此解时,后面通常跟不定式。如:① I'll offer to do it, if no one will. 如果没有人愿意干,我来干。② Never offer to teach fish to swim. 不要班门弄斧。③ Having been there many times, he offered to be our guide. 他因多次去过那里,主动提出做我们的向导。④ He offered to supply me with school expenses. 他表示愿意为我提供学费。
 【注】 offer还有"出价"之意,这时常与for连用。如:① I offered him a high price for his horse. 我出高价买他的马。② I should think I was lucky if 1 were offered £5000 for it. 我想要是有人愿出5000英镑买它,我就够幸运的了。
 【注】offer亦有"发生""出现"之意。如:① I shall seize the first opportunity that offers. 一有机会我会抓住。② We shall visit the place as occasion offers. 有机会我们就去参观那个地方。
 ★ a variety of意思是"各式各样的"。如:① My little brother has a variety of interests. 我的小弟有各种各样的兴趣。② She offered a variety of excuses. 她提出了各种各样的借口。
 【注】variety前可有形容词来修饰。如:① A great variety of animals survive there. 那里存留下来许多种动物。② The library has a wide variety of books. 这家图书馆有许许多多种类的书。③ The shopping-centre sells a great variety of goods. 这个购物中心出售各种各样的商品。
 【注】variety既可以作可数名词,也可以作不可数名词,前者意为"品种""异体""种类"后者作"多样化""变化"解释。如:① That farmer is always looking for new varieties of wheat. 那位农民一直在寻找新品种的麦子。② My last job lacked variety, I was doing the same thing all the time. 我的上一份工作缺乏变化,我老是在做同样的事情。③ There are numerous varieties of fish in the lake. 这个湖里有无数种类的鱼。④ Life at school has plenty of variety. 学校的生活有多种多样的内容。
10. ... you can take a dip in the pool, work out at the gym....你可以在游泳池里泡,在体育馆里锻炼。(p.36最后一段 第4 - 5 行)
 ★ dip的原意是"浸""蘸",此处作可数名词用,是非正式用语,意为"游泳""洗澡"。与动词take或have连用。如:① They have decided to take a dip in the lake before lunch. 他们决定午饭前在湖里游一会儿泳。② Let's go for a clip in the sea after school, shall me? 我们放学以后去海边游泳好吗?
 【注】dip可作动词用,意为"浸""泡""把(手)伸入"。如:① Mary dipped her hand into the clear pool. 玛丽把手伸到清澈的池水里。② Ask the children to guess what's in each container by dipping their hands in. 叫孩子把手伸进容器里,猜猜每个容器里是什么东西。③ She dipped a hand into the jar of sweets and pulled one out. 她把一只手伸进了糖果罐里,掏出了一块糖果。
 【注】dip有"下沉""下降"之意。如:① Unemployment dipped to 6.9 percent last month. 上个月的失业率下降到百分之六点九。② The boat dipped slightly under his weight. 船在他的重量下稍有下沉。③ The moon dipped behind the trees. 月亮落到树后去了。
 【注】dip into可引申为"浏览""翻阅"之意。如:① Some books are intended to be read at length,others to be dipped into. 有些书是供细读的,有些则供浏览。② I have only been able to dip into your book as yet. 目前我只能把你的书浏览一遍。
 ★ work out,此处不是"解出(题目)"之意,而是表示"进行锻炼""训练"。如:① The football team of our school ale working out on the playground every day. 我们学校的足球队员每天都在操场上训练。
 【注】work out有"(按某种方式)发展""有预期的结果""有益处"之意。② That plan seems to most probably work out satisfactorily. 那个计划似乎很可能获得令人满意的预期结果。③ Things just didn't work out as planned. 事情没按我们的计划发展。④ I'm glad that things are working out so well for them in Australia. 我很高兴他们在澳大利亚过得很不错。⑤ I'm sure things will work out for the best in the end. 我相信事情最后将朝最好的方向发展。
11. Fortunately, there are things you can do to avoid some of the most common problems. 幸运的是,你可以采取一些措施以避免某些常见的问题。(p.38 Getting there... 第2行)
 动词avoid的基本用法
 ★avoid意为"避免""避开""躲避",后接名词,代词或动名词。如:① It is hard to avoid mistakes. 犯错误是难免的。② I realized they were trying to avoid the topic.我明白了他们是在故意避开这个话题。③ We must try to avoid repeating these errors. 我们要避免重犯这些错误。④ It was impossible to avoid being much affected. 要想不受太大影响是不可能的。⑤ We all avoided mentioning that matter. 我们都避免提到那件事。
 【注】avoid可用作被动语态。如:① Misuse and waste must be avoided. 使用不当和浪费都要避免。② This difficulty can be avoided in several ways. 有几种方法可以避免这个困难。
 【注】avoid是终止性动词,不能和表示一段时间的状语连用,但是avoid若与有否定意义的词搭配时,则可以和表示一段时间的状语连用。如:③ Their silence Was so cold that she was unable to avoid their eyes for long. 他们的沉默是那样的令人不寒而栗,以致她无法长时间避开他们的目光。
12. Travel agents can help you to find out about package trips that include hotel costs,... 旅行社会帮助你了解包括宾馆开支...的选择。(p.39 Tours, Tickets and Visas 第2行)
 include, including和included
 ★include是动词,意为"包含""包括"。如:① The price includes both house and furniture. 房价包括了房子和家具。② The Chinese nation includes more than 50 national minorities besides the Hans. 中华民族除了汉族外,还包括50多个少数民族。③ Our tour party included several retired couples. 我们的旅游团里有几对退休老夫妇。④ We no longer include him among our friends. 我们不再把他看作我们的朋友。⑤ Your duties will include putting the children to bed. 你的工作职责将包括安顿孩子上床睡觉。⑥ Everyone here took part in the fight against flood, including old people. 这里所有的人,包括老人,都参加了防洪战斗。⑦ There aye eight members including the President of the USA and the British Prime Minister. 有八位成员包括美国总统和英国首相。
 【注】included是形容词,通常作后置定语或表语。如:① Everyone had something to say, me included. 所有的人,包括我在内,都有些话要说。② All of us, myself included, aye baseball fans. 我们大家,包括我自己,都是棒球迷。③ Food is included in the price. 食物包括在价格中。
13. Experienced travelers may prefer to make their own arrangements, ... 有经验的旅行者可能宁愿自己安排...(p.39 Tours, Tickets and Visas 第3 - 4行)
 ★ prefer用法小结▲要掌握prefer的用法,主要抓住两点,一是prefer单独使用时后面跟什么,二是prefer与to或rather than连用时后面各跟什么:不定式,不定式作宾语补足语或从句。如:① He likes geography, but he prefers history.他喜欢地理,但他更喜欢历史。(名词) ② What do you prefer, rice or bread? 你喜欢米饭还是面包?(代词) ③ You may vote for any other person you prefer. 你更愿意投其他人的票也可以。(代词) ④ At the moment they preferred not to talk about this question. 在这个时刻,他们宁愿不谈这个问题。(不定式) ⑤ He preferred speaking without referring to his notes. 他喜欢不看讲演稿做报告。(动名词) ⑥ I should have preferred him to do it in a different way. 我倒愿意他用另一种办法做。(不定式作宾补) ⑦ The Committee would prefer the matter t0 be discussed at the next meeting. 委员们希望这个问题下次会议再讨论。(同上) ⑧She preferred that we should hold the discussion right after the lecture. 她更愿意我们一听完讲座就进行讨论。(从句)
 【注】表示"宁愿...'不愿"时,要用prefer...to在这个结构中,to作为介词。所以在prefer和to后应分别跟名词、代词或动名词,要注意前后保持一致,接同样词性的词。如:① John prefers Dickens to Thackery. 约翰喜欢狄更斯而不是萨克雷。② He said he preferred the country t0 the city. 他说城市跟农村相比,他更喜欢农村。③ Even on holidays, he preferred doing something to doing nothing. 即使在假日里,他也宁愿干点什么,也不愿闲着。④ Few children prefer working to playing. 很少有孩子喜欢干活而不喜欢玩。
 【注】也可以用prefer...rather than来表示上述意思,具体用法是在prefer 后接带to的动词不定式,rather than后接动词原形;也可以在prefer...rather than...后分别接名词。如:① I think I should prefer fish rather than meat.我想我还是要鱼,不要肉。② She preferred to stay home rather than go with us. 她宁愿呆在家里也不愿同我们一起去。 ③ He prefers to go to the town by bike rather than take a bus. 他宁愿骑自行车去镇上而不愿乘汽车去。④ I prefer to work rather than sit there doing nothing. 我宁愿干活也不愿坐在那里无所事事。
14. Travel light if possible. 如果可能的话,轻装旅行。(p.39 Planning and packing 第4行)
 ▲此处light作副词用,修饰动词travel意为"轻装地""轻便地""轻载地"。如:① We always travel light. 我们总是轻装旅行。② She felt uncomfortable because she slept light last night. 她昨晚睡得不实,所以感到不舒服。③ Her years sit light on her though she is over fifty.虽然她五十多岁了,但并不见老。
 【注】light作副词时,与lightly有所不同,后者意为"轻微地...'轻轻地"。如:① The visitor tapped lightly on the door. 客人轻轻地敲门。② The wind was blowing lightly from the west. 风轻轻地从西边吹来。③ If you tread lightly, your footsteps will not be heard. 轻轻走,脚步声就不会被听见。
 【注】lightly还可以作"少量地""清淡地""少许"解释。如:④ After lunching lightly at Quinine's, he slipped into the museum. 在奎宁家吃了正午饭后,他走进了博物馆。⑤ The cake is sprinkled lightly with sugar. 糕点上撒了少许糖。
 【注】lightly也可解释为"轻便地",但多指"衣着",不指旅行。例 ⑥ Many people were lightly dressed. 很多人穿得很随便。

高二英语Unit16 The United States of America知识点总复习教案Section I 课前准备、听力、口语
1. Atlanta is known as the "Big Apple". 亚特兰大以"大苹果"为人们所熟知。(p.41 Ex.1 No.3)
 ★ be known as 作为......而有名气
▲ known as, known by, known for与known to be known as以......而知名,著称;be known by意为根据(按照)...得知(较少用),be known for因...而众所周知,表示之所以被众人所知的原因或特征,for后面常跟抽象动词;be known to则意为"为...所知",仅仅表示"大家都知道"指某个地方或某一范围的人知道。例如:A man is known by the company he keeps. 看其交友可知其人。She was well-known as an excellent dancer. 她作为一名优秀的舞蹈家而闻名。He's known for his readiness to help others. 他乐于助人是非常闻名的。 He's known to the police as a thief. 警察都知道他是个小偷。
辨析:know与recognize
 know指"知道"可表示"认识",也可表示熟悉,了解事物。recognize指"认出,认识,承认"。例如: I don't know the star but I know of him. 我不认识这位明星,但我听说过。I recognized his voice in the dark. 黑暗中我听出了他的声音。
2. Why do you think Ellis Island was turn into a museum? 你认为为什么Ellis岛变成了博物馆? (p. 42 Listening Ex.3 No. 1)
 ★turn into的用法
 ▲turn既可以是及物动词,也可以是不及物动词,作及物动词时,turn... into...意为"把......变成......"。如: ① I'm thinking of turning the flower garden into a vege- table field. 我正在考虑把花园改成菜地。② We can turn a liquid into a gas. 我们能使液体变成气体。 ③ Can you turn this passage into English? 你能把这个短文译成英语吗?
 ▲turn 作不及物动词时,意为"变成""译成"。如:① He has turned into nice boy after all. 他到底变成了一个不错的小伙子。② Jane is turning into quite a skilled musician. 简正成长为一个训练有素的音乐家。③ Shakespeare's plays are difficult to turn into any other language. 莎士比亚的戏剧译成其他语言是困难的。
3. There is a lot of history connected with people settling in the USA. 有一段悠久的历史与在美国定居的人有关。(p. 42 Listening Ex.3 B) ★connect ... with ...
 connect...with...意为"连接""使有关系"。如:① This road connects Beijing with Tianjin.这条公路连接北京和天津。② The early bus from the village connects with the 8:30 train.村里开出的早班公共汽车可与8点30分开出的火车接上。③ The visit of the police was not connected with the lost child. 警察这次来访与失踪的孩子无关。④ Mr Thompson has been connected with our company since 1990.汤普森先生自1990年以来就与我公司有联系。⑤ It's natural to connect Australia with kangaroo.把澳大利亚与袋鼠联系在一起很自然。 ⑥ The police did not connect him with the murder.警方没有想到他与凶杀案有关。⑦ We usually connect spring with sunshine and flowers. 通常一提起春天我们就联想到阳光和鲜花。
【注】动词join也有"连接"之意,与介词to连用,与connect...with...作 "连接"解时同义。如:Sometimes the needles are joined to electric wires. 有时把针和电线连接起来。
4. Officials treated the people passing through the island badly. 官员们粗暴对待那些过岛的人。(p. 42 Listening Ex.3 No. 2 B)
 ★pass through的几种用法
▲ pass though 在本课中作"通过""经过"解释。如:① He passed through the doorway and entered the room. 他穿过门道,走进房间。② The newspaper is passing through the press.报纸正在印刷中。③ His sister had passed through medical college to become a qualified doctor.他姐姐上完了医学院成了一名合格的医生。④ Henry passed through a very hard time when his wife died. 亨利的妻子去世后,他经历了一段十分困难的时期。⑤ When Jane did not come home by midnight, many terrible ideas passed through Mother's mind. 简到了半夜还没有回来,这使母亲脑子里闪过了许多可怕的念头。
5. Some people cried when they were refused entry into the USA. 一些人在被拒绝进入美国的时候哭了。(p. 42 Listening Ex.3 No.2 C) ★ entry
 (1) n. 进入The children were surprised by the sudden entry of their teacher. 老师突然进来把孩子们吓了一跳。The thieves had forced an entry into the building. 窃贼闯进了大楼内。
 (2) n. [U]进入权 We can't go along that road because the sign says 'No Entry'. 我们不能走那条路,牌子上写
着"禁止人内"。
 (3) (日记,账本等)项目There is no entry in his diary for that day. 他的日记上没有那一天的记录。
辨析:entry与entrance
两词均可表示进入,但entrance特别用于指进入仪式,演出;而entry指进入组织或指进入的权力。例如:to make an entrance onto the stage, an entrance examination;China's entry into the WTO;no entry
Section II 阅读
6. Ever since the Civil War, the South has struggled to find ways to deal with its troubled past.自从南北战争以来,美国南方各州一直在竭力找办法处理动荡不安的过去。(p.43 Reading 第一段 第1行)
▲struggle此处是动词,作"尽力使得"解释,后面接不定式。如:① The businessman struggled to free himself from debt. 那商人竭力想要摆脱债务。② She struggled to remember where she had been at the time of the accident.她竭力回忆事故发生时她在哪里。
【注】struggle的原意是"挣扎""斗争"后面可接不定式或for, against, with等介词。如:① Most animals have to struggle for existence in a dangerous world.大多数动物不得不在一个充满危险的世界里为生存而斗争。② The man in the boat struggled with the great waves.小船上的人与巨浪搏斗。③The boy struggled with the question and at last found the answer.那男孩苦想问题,终于找到了答案。④The swimmer struggled against the tide. 游泳者奋力与海浪搏斗。
 ▲way
 (1)道路,路线路途 Which is the best / right / quickest / shortest way? 哪条路是最好(正确、最快、最近)的路? The longest / farthest way round / about is the nearest way home. 最远的路才是捷径。He made / pushed / fought / felt his way out. 他走(挤、冲、摸索着走)出去。
 (2)方法,手段 They had no way to communicate with her. 他们没有办法与她联系。What's the way of address- ing the Queen? 怎么称呼女王才得体? The way (that) you are doing it is wrong. 你这么做错了。
 拓展:by the way 顺便说
on one's way 在......的路上; on the way 在途中; all the way 一直地; ask the way 问道; by way of 取道,经由; have a long way to go 还要走很远的路,还要做很大的努力; in a / one way 在某种程度上(in) one's own; way 按自己的方式 in the way妨碍
▲ deal with有"对付""应付""相处"之意。如:① That man is impossible to deal with. 这人无法相处。② I'll get someone else to deal with them. 我将另找一个人来对付他们。③ Deal fairly with your students! 对你的学生要公正! ④ He seemed to be quick- tempered, but was actually not difficult to deal with. 他性子急,但不难相处。
 【注】deal with还常用来表示以下意思:
 (1) 是......的买主;与......有生意往来 The Greens deal with the butcher at the corner of the block. 格林家通常在街角处的肉铺买肉。
 (2) attend to 处理 (事情、问题、紧急情况等) He is a person who can deal properly with all situations. 他是一个能恰当处理各种局面的人。
 (3) 关于,论及This article deals with an important subject. 这篇文章论及一个重要问题。
7. ... the pains of slaves brought from Africa by greedy slave owners. 被贪婪的奴隶贩子从非洲带来的奴隶的痛苦。(p.43 Reading 第一段 第3行)
▲ pain原意为"疼痛",表示身体局部的疼痛,其前一般用不定冠词,也可以用复数。如:① Mary is crying because she has a pain in her stomach.玛丽胃疼得哭了起来。② She had pains in her back all the time. 她背部一直痛。③ I couldn't sleep for pain. 我疼得睡不着觉。
【注】表示身体某部分的疼痛,介词要用in,不可用at或on,如例句① ②。
 【注】pain表示"痛苦"时,是不可数名词。如:① You will forgive me if I have given your pain.如果我给了你痛苦,请你原谅我。② The pain in her heart was intolerable. 她内心的痛苦简直无法忍受。③ It will cause her infinite pain. 这会给她带来无限的痛苦。④ How well I understood the confusion and pain of her parents! 我非常理解她父母的迷惑和痛苦!
 【注】 pain作"烦恼""辛苦""费心""努力"解释时要用复数形式。如:① He is a good teacher and takes great pains with his pupils.他是个好老师,非常尽力地教育学生。 ② With great pains and much patience, I at last managed to get from them the information I wanted. 我煞费苦心,坚韧不拔,总算从他们那里弄来了我需要的信息。② The old lady had taken great pains with her hair.这老太太在头发上花了一番工夫。③ She took great pains to show me how the computer worked.她努力向我展示这台计算机的工作原理。
 【注】in pain是"痛苦""疼痛"之意,通常作表语,with pain是"疼痛地" "痛得"之意,用作状语。如:① The soldier Was wounded, and in pain.这名战士受伤了,疼得很。② The boy Was crying with pain after he broke his arm. 这男孩摔断胳膊后疼得哭叫起来。
 【注】也可作动词用,意为"使心痛(痛苦)""使苦恼"。如:① It pained me to watch them quarrel. 看见他们争吵我很难受。② On nights like this, his wounded foot pained him.在这样的夜晚,他的伤脚就作痛。③ My tooth doesn't pain me now.我的牙齿现在不痛了。
8. ... the many sacrifices of the Civil Rights Movement. 许多人在民权运动中所作出的牺牲。(p.43 Reading 第一段倒数第4行) ▲ sacrifice
 (1) n. [U]供奉,献祭,祭祀 the sacrifice of an ox to Jupiter. 用牛祭祀朱庇特。
(2) [C]供品,祭品,牺牲 Kill a sheep as a sacrifice. 宰羊用作祭品。
(3) [U]放弃某事物(通常是重要或有价值的东西) Getting rich isn't worth the sacrifice of your principles. 为致富而牺牲原则是不值得的。He became a top sports- man at some sacrifice to himself. 他付出了些代价才成为优秀的运动员。
(4) [C]牺牲的事物 Her parents made many sacrifices so that she could go to university. 她父母为她上大学在多方面作了牺牲。
(5) v. 供奉,献祭,牺牲某物 She sacrificed her career to marry him. 她为了嫁给他牺牲了自己的事业。The car's designers have sacrificed comfort to economy. 汽车设计人员为降低造价舍弃了汽车舒适方面的一些设想。 I'm not sacrificing my day off just to go shopping with Jane. 我可不愿意牺牲一天休假日单单陪简去买东西。
9. The wounds are slow to heal and the scars run deep.伤口很难愈合,伤疤很深。(p.43 Reading 第一段 倒数第3行)
▲在作表语的形容词后的不定式,如果不带宾语,则与句子的主语往往有一种逻辑上的动宾关系,如本句to heal逻辑上的宾语是句子的主语the wounds;若该不定式动词是不及物动词,则其后应加上适当的介词,与主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系,请体会下列例句的意思和结构。① Your writing is impossible to read. 你的书法没法认。② My car is hard to start in cold weather.我的车天冷时很难发动。③ Do you think the water is safe to drink? 你认为这水喝起来安全吗? ④ The food is not fit to eat. 这食品不适合吃。
【注】上述例句中,不定式动词均为及物动词,其逻辑宾语是句子的主语,若不定式动词为不及物动词,则需加一介词。如:① The room is comfortable to live in. 这房间住起来很舒服。② Mr Turner is easy to get along with.特纳先生很容易相处。③ The bench is long enough to sleep on.这凳子很长,可以在上面睡觉。
 ▲run此处为连系动词(常作连系动词),后接形容词,意为"变得" (进入或达到某一状态) 。如: ① The fiver was beginning to run dry.河水开始干涸起来。② They had to return to camp because their food supply was running low.因为粮食不够了,他们只好返回营地。③ You mustn't let the children run wild and do exactly what they like.你不要让孩子们毫无约束,爱干什么就干什么。④ Prices for fruit are running high this season.这个季节的水果价格上涨了。⑤ As the fuel ran short, the plane was forced to land.由于燃料快要用完,飞机被迫降落。
  【注】(1) 负责(某事物),经营,管理 He has no idea of how to run a successful business. 他不知道把企业办好的办法。Stop trying to run my life for me! 我的生活不用你来管。
 (2) (使某物)动转,起作用。Your new car seems to run very nicely. 你的新车开起来不错。
 (3) (指公共汽车等) (沿一固定路线) 往来行驶。Buses to Oxford run every half an hour. 去牛津的公共汽车每半个小时一班。The trains don't run on Christmas Day. 圣诞节火车停驶。
(4) run还有"内容为......"之意。如:① He received a note which ran as follows.他收到一个条子,内容如下。 ② The story runs like this. 故事大致内容如下。③ This is how the song runs. 这首歌曲是这样唱的。
10. Even today, the South is far behind the rest of the United States in areas such as education and economic development. 甚至到今天,南部在教育和经济发展方面都远远落后于美国其他州。(p.43 Reading 第一段倒数第2行) ▲ behind prep.
 (1) 在或向(某人,物)后面 Who is the girl standing behind Richard? 站在理查德后面的那个姑娘是谁? She glanced behind her. 她向身后瞥了一眼。The accident is behind you now. 事情已过去了,别再想它了。
 (2) 落后于...... Britain is behind Japan in developing modern technology. 在发展现代技术方面英国落后于日本。
 (3) 支持(人,物),赞成 My family is right behind me in my ambition to become a doctor. 我的家人对于我立志从医很赞同。
11. There are signs that a new, different south is coming out of its dark past. 有迹象表明,从黑暗的过去中将诞生出一个崭新的,完全不同的南方。(p.43 Reading 第二段 第2行)
▲ come out of意为"有......的结果"。如:① Nothing came out of this talk.这次会议没有产生任何结果。② Well, what came out of your careful planning?喂,你那样精心筹划的结果怎样? ③ No one can say what will come out of the discussion.谁也说不上讨论会有什么结果。
 【注】come out后接不同的介词表示不同的意思。如come out with意为"说出来""讲出""发表"。如: ① If you have anything in your mind, I want you to come out with it. 你要是有什么想法,我希望你说出来。② He came out with some funny ideas.他提出了一些可笑的想法。③ That year they came out with another article. 那一年他们又发表了一篇文章。
 【注】come out意为"出版...出来"。如:① The magazine comes out once a month. 这本杂志每月出一期。② The truth has come out at last. 真相终于大白。
【注】 come out还有"开花""褪色""罢工"等意思,要根据句意来推测其确切的意思。如:① I think the roses will come out next week. 我想玫瑰下星期要开了。 ② Will the color come out if the cloth is washed? 这布洗了会褪色吗? ③ The dockers have come out on strike. 码头工人罢工了。④ How did the film come out? 这片子拍得怎样?
12. Atlanta was burnt down in the Civil War. 亚特兰大在内战中被烧毁。(p.43 Reading 第二段 第4行)
▲ burn down意为"烧掉""焚毁",既可作及物动词,也可作不及物动词。如:① The school building was burned down in that big fire. 在那场大火中,学校大楼被烧毁。② The whole village was burned down bv the enemy. 整个村庄都被敌人烧毁了。③ The woodshed burnt down in half an hour. 小木屋半个小时就烧毁了。
【注】burn down所指的"烧毁"多是指将高大的物体烧毁,烧塌,而 burn up也有"烧掉""烧毁"之意,其范围比burn down要广,既可指建筑物被烧毁,也可指其他的东西被烧毁,烧掉。如:① All his books were burnt up in the fire.他所有的书都在这场火灾中被焚。② The fire burnt up mole than £500000 worth of antiques.这次大火烧毁了价值五十万的古董。③ The house burned up before the firemen got there. 还没等消防人员来到,那房子就烧毁了。
 【注】请注意burn down。burn up burning与burn out的区别,后者意为 "烧完""烧坏""烧尽"。如:① The fire burned out for lack of fuel. 由于没有燃料,火灭掉了。② Her enthusiasm seems to have burned out. 她的热情似乎已耗尽了。③ The poet's ability burnt itself out before he was thirty. 诗人的才能还不到三十岁就枯竭了。
 【注】burn out也可表示将建筑物或其他物体烧掉。如:The building was burned out and only walls remained. 大楼被焚毁,只剩下残壁。
13. Atlanta quickly recovered from the destruction caused by the Civil War. 亚特兰大很快从战争的破坏中恢复过来。(p.43 Reading 第三段 第1行)
▲recover在本课中作不及物动词用,通常与from连用,意为"从......中恢复";作及物动词用时,意为"恢复",通常与from连用,意为 "从......中恢复"。如: ① A healthy child quickly recovers from a fever. 健康的孩子发了烧很快就会好。② The athlete soon recovered his breath after the final dash. 这位运动员在冲刺之后很快就呼吸正常了。③ She had not yet recovered from the shock. 她还没有完全从惊吓中恢复过来。④ Don't go back to work until you have fully recovered.等你痊愈了,再去上班。
【注】 recover与反身代词连用时意为"镇定下来""恢复原样"。如: ① She soon recovered herself and stopped crying. 不一会儿,她冷静下来,不再哭了。② The skater stumbled but at once recovered himself. 滑冰的人绊了一下,但立即恢复了平衡。③ She made a great effort to recover herself. 她极力使自己镇定下来。
 【注】recover "恢复(能力,健康等)" I'm slowly recovering my strength after a flu. 流感以后我身体慢慢恢复。She recovered her consciousness. 她已恢复了知觉。
【注】recover还有"重新找到" "找回(被盗,遗失之物)重新获得某事物" "收复(回)"之意。如: ① Recently a man -made satellite we sent up has been recovered.最近我们发射的一颗人造卫星已返回地面。 ② The police helped them to recover their stolen jewellery.警察帮助他们把被窃的珠宝找回来了。③ The boy recovered his football from the neighbour's lawn.男孩从邻居的草坪上找回了自己的足球。
 【注】重新控制 (自己,行为,情绪) She recovered herself and smiled. 她恢复了常态笑了笑。The murderer never recovered his peace of mind. 这个杀手心里从没有平静过。
 【注】重新获得(金钱,时间,地位) They sought to recover damages from the firm. 他们设法向那家公司索取赔偿金。
14. Despite the hardships of the post - war years and the Great Depression,... 不管战后年代和大萧条时期有多么艰难,... (p.43 Reading 第三段倒数第2行)
 ★介词despite的用法
▲ despite意为"不管""任凭",相当于in spite of,后接名词、代词或动词,但语气比后者轻,不如后者常用。如: ① He went out despite bad weather. 他不管天气恶劣出发了。② Despite the fogs we went out for a walk. 尽管有雾,我们还是外出散步。③ Despite myself, Harry's remarks had caused me to stop and reflect. 尽管不是我的本意,哈里的话使得我停下来想了想。④ Despite waiting to see him again, she refused to reply to his letter. 尽管很想再见到他,她却拒不答复他的来信。
【注】despite后可接what引导的从句。如: ① Despite what she says, I'll go.不管她怎么说,我也要去。② I would support him despite what he did. 不管他做什么,我都支持他。
 【注】 despite = in spite of,故不能再与of连用; in spite of / despite + 名词 = although + 从句
 (a) The plane took off in spite of the bad weather. (= although the weather was bad)
 (b)The plane will take off regardless of the weather. (= no matter whether the weather is good or bad)
 in spite of= despite; regardless of = without considering or taking notice of
15. ... but where segregation took away many of their rights. 但是种族隔离制度剥夺了他们的许多权利。(p.44 Reading 第二段 第3行)
 ▲ take away
 (1) 在餐馆买(带回家),带走 Two chicken curries and rice to take away. 劳驾,要两份外卖的咖喱鸡饭。
 (2)(使心情等) 消失 The doctor has given her some tablets to take away the pain. 医生给了他些止疼药。Anxiety has taken away his appetite. 他愁得吃不下饭。
 (3) (从某处)移去,移开(某事或某物) What takes you away so early? 你为什么这么早就走?
拓展:take apart 拆开; take back 收回(诺言,话语); take down 拿下来,记下来; take in 接受;理解;欺骗; take off 脱下; take on 接受,从事(工作);雇佣; take out 取出,拿出; take over 接管; take up 开始学习(从事活动)
16. The injustice of the city and of the South led Dr King to organize non-violent demonstrations aimed at ending segregation.这座城市以及整个南方的不公正导致金博士组织非暴力的示威运动,目的是结束隔离制度。(p.44 Reading 第二段 第3 - 4行)
▲lead to和lead sb. to do sth. 的区别:前者是"通向""引起",to为介词。后接名词、代词或动名词,而后者的to是不定式的符号,是不定式作宾语补足语,意为"使得......做某事"。如: ① "Where does this road lead?" "It leads to the railway station." "这条路通到哪里?" "通向火车站。" ② These passages lead to the rooms inside. 这些走廊通向里面的房间。③ Blindly copying others might lead to losses. 盲目照搬别人的经验可能导致损失。④ All this has led to rapid progress in industry in the area. 所有这些使这个地区的工业迅速发展。⑤ That led me to think that the boy was ill. 那使我想到孩子是病了。⑥ His answer led me to make further inquiries. 他的回答促使我进一步调查。⑦ His amazing intelligence led him to make many discoveries. 他惊人的智力使他有很多发现。
 ▲aim at意为"目的是""为的是"。① I don't understand his behavior. What's he aiming at? 我不理解他的行为,他意图何在? ② The factory must aim at increasing production. 工厂必须致力于增加产量。③ He aims at perfection in everything he does.他做每一件事都力求做得尽善尽美。
【注】也可以说aim to do sth. 即在aim后用不定式表示目的。如:① He aims to gain the Nobel Prize. 他的目标是得到诺贝尔奖金。② We aim to produce superior goods, not large quantities.我们的目标是生产优质产品,而不是追求数量。③ The hunter aimed at the lion and fired, but missed him. 猎人对着狮子开了枪,但未击中。 ④ The students picked up stones and aimed them at the policemen.学生们捡起一些石头,冲着警察投去。⑤ In saying this, I'm not aiming at you. 我这话不是针对你说的。⑥ His speech was not only aimed at the older boys. 他的话不光是说给那些年龄较大的男孩子听的。 ⑦ We all realized who that remark was aimed at. 我们心里都明白那句话是冲谁说的。
【注】aim at作"针对"解释时,如主语是人,多用主动语态,如主语是人所说的话,所作的评论等,则常用be aimed at,见上述例句 ⑤ ⑥ ⑦。
17. The city saw a series of fierce fights between blacks and whites. 这个城市目睹了黑人和白人之间一连串的冲突。(p.44 Reading 第二段 第4行)
 ▲本句是用拟人化的手法赋予无生命的主语以人的动作,以增加句子的表现力,类似的句子有: ① The year 1949 saw the founding of the People's Republic of China.一九四九年见证了中华人民共和国的诞生。② His unselfish work is beginning to tell. 他无私的工作开始产生效果。③ Her nervousness began to tell as soon as she entered the room.她一进房间就表现出紧张不安。④ My watch says it is nine already. 我的表显示已经九点了。
 ▲series意为"连续" "系列",单复数相同,常用a series of表示"系 列"。如: ① They carried out a series of expe- riment to test the new drug. 他们进行了一系列试验试新药。② The region has suffered from a series of natural disasters. 该地区遭受了一连串的自然灾害。③ She was invited to give a series of lectures on American politics.她被邀请就美国政治作系列讲座。④ There has been a series of ear accidents at the crossing.在那个交叉路口已经发生了一连串的车祸。
 【注】a series of...之后要用名词复数,但通常整个谓语用单数。A series of books has been translated into English 一系列书被译成了英文。
18. ... and millions of Americans watched as people marched through Atlanta in honour of Dr King. 千百万美国人观看了人们为悼念金博士而穿过亚特兰大的游行。(p.44 Reading 第二段 倒数第3行)
▲ in honour of意思是"为向......表示敬意""为纪念(庆祝)"也可以说in sb.'s honour。如: ① A memorial was built in honour of those who died for the country. 为纪念为国捐躯者建了一座纪念碑。② A holiday was declared in honour of the President's visit.为庆祝总统到来特宣布放假一日。③ Mr Mandela will attend an outdoor concert in his honour in the centre of Paris. 尊敬的曼德拉先生将出席在巴黎中心举办的一场露天音乐会。④ The cere- mony Was held in honour of the Queen's birthday. 这庆典是为庆祝女王的生日而举行的。⑤ A memorial meeting was held in his honour. 举行了一个纪念他的集会。
【注】有关honour的用法我们学过的还有have the honour of doing sth. 或it is one's honour to do sth. 意为"乐于做某事"或"有幸做某 事",do honour to或do sb. honour意思是"用......来庆祝......"或 "使某人增添光荣"。如: ① It's a great honour to meet you. 认识你三生有幸。② He is one of the most interesting people I have the honour of meeting. 他是我有幸认识的最有趣的人之一。③ Her behavior in such a difficult situation does her honour.她在逆境中的表现给自己增添了光荣。④ They dressed their ships with flags to do honour to the occasions.他们用旗帜把船只装饰起来庆祝这重要的日子。
19. Dr King's efforts were not in vain. 金博士的努力没有白费。(p.44 Reading 第二段 倒数第3行)
 ▲in vain意为"徒劳""无效""枉费心机"。如: ① It became obvious that all her complaints were in vain. 很显然她的所有投诉都是徒劳的。② The police tried in vain to break up the protest crowds. 警察企图驱散抗议的人群,但没有成功。③ He wants the world to know his son did not die in vain.他想让全世界的人都知道他的儿子没有白死。
 【注】vain adj.
 (1) 对自己(的才干等)自视过高的,自负的 She is a vain girl. 她是位虚荣的女孩。He is always vain of his appearance. 他对自己的容貌总很自负。
 (2) 无价值的,无意义的 It is vain to try to save him 试图救他是徒然的。
 (3)无结果的,徒然;无效果的,无用的 Try in vain to sleep. 怎么也睡不着。The police tried in vain to break up the protest crowds.警察企图驱散抗议的人群,但没有成功。All our work was in vain. 我们所有的工作都白费了。
 【注】 vain常见的词组还有:in a vain attempt / effort to do sth. 妄图做......但未成功,in the vain hope that未能如愿。如: ① I was singing in a vain effort to cheer him up. 我本想唱支歌使他高兴起来,但未能如愿。 ② The crazy football fans were in a vain attempt to make trouble during the match. 疯狂的球迷们妄图在比赛期间捣乱,但没有成功。③ He married his fourth wife, Susan, in the vain hope that she would improve his health. 他跟他的第四个妻子苏珊结了婚。,希望她能改善他的健康,但没有如愿。
20. During the Olympics, the eyes of the world were on Atlanta. 在奥运会期间,全世界的目光都集中在亚特兰大。(p.44 Reading 第三段 第3行)
▲介词on在此处作"(视,盯)在......(目标)上"解释。如: ① Allen is eating, her eyes on her food.埃伦吃东西时两眼盯着食物。② Jim came in, his eyes were fixed on Della as if he didn't know her. 吉姆走了进来,他的眼睛盯住了黛拉好像不认识她似的。③ He fixed his eyes on something moving on the wall.他一直盯着在墙上蠕动的东西。
 【注】请注意on的几种常见用法
 1. on表示"关于(某个题目)""在(某个问题)上"。如:① Write a term paper 0n Shakespeare.写一篇关于莎士比亚的学期论文。② I differ from you on that point. 在这一点上我和你看法不同。③ He is absorbed in his work on bacteria. 他专心进行他关于细菌的工作。
 2. on用于引申意义,表示"在......身上""在心上"等。如: ①My mind is still on the research. 我的心思仍然在这项研究上。② Have you got any money on you? 你身上带钱了吗? ③ I saw it on television. 我是在电视上看到的。
 3. 表示"在......时"后跟动名词或名词,表示一个动作紧接着另一个动作。如: ① On reaching the city,he called up Mary. 一到城里,他就给玛丽打电话。② The boys stood up on the entrance of the headmaster. 校长进来时男孩子们都站了起来。③Oh his return from Europe, he set to work again. 他一从欧洲回来,就投入了工作。
 4. 表示原因,意为"根据""由于""在......下"。如: ① He did it on the instruction of the manager. 他是根据经理的指示这样做的。② I came on your invitation. 我是在你的邀请下来的。
 4. 表示目的。如: ①She had come on a visit to England. 她来访问英国。② The Turners had been away on a long trip. 特纳一家离开去长途旅行了。
 5. 表示"靠......生活""以......为主食"。如: ① The prisoners could not exist on bread and water. 囚犯也不能单靠面包和水生活。② They lived mostly on vegetables from their garden. 他们主要靠园子里的蔬菜生活。
21. ... but the people there are determined to make a new beginning. 但是那儿的人民决心从头开始。(p.44 Reading 最后一段 第2行)
★ 动词determine的常见用法
▲ determine意为"决定""决心",后面常跟不定式或从句。如: ① They determined to stay there till the year was up.他们决定在那儿一直待到年底。② The explorer determined to set out tile next day in spite of the storm. 探险者决定不顾风暴次日出发。③ Have you determined where you are going to spend the holidays? 你决定去度假的地方了吗? ④Nobody determined what is to be done. 没有人决定下一步怎么办。
 【注】determine作上述解释时,可以跟on引导的短语。如: ① They determined on an early start. 他们决定早动身。② He has determined on going tomorrow. 他已决定明天去。
 【注】上述例句⑤⑥相当于determine后接不定式。
 ▲determine常用作过去分词作表语,意为"有决定""下定决心",后接不定式或从句,如本课正是此用法。如: ① She was determined not follow his advice.她决定不按他的劝告办。② He was determined that no one should know anything about it. 他决定不让任何人知道这事。③ They were determined to fight for their nation's independence and freedom to the end.他们决心为国家的独立和自由斗争到底。④ He was determined that his son should have a good education.他决定要让他的儿子接受良好的教育。
 ▲determine有"使决定""使下决心"之意,后接不定式作宾补。如: ① What determined you to accept the offer?
什么原因使你接受这项提议? ② His advice deter- mined me to delay no more. 他的忠告使我决定不再拖延。③ Your answer determined me to do so. 你的答复使我决定这样做。
▲determine亦可作"确定""限定""算出"解释。如: ① The size of your feet determines the size of your shoes.脚的大小决定鞋子的尺码。② They determined the date for our party.他们确定了我们聚会的日期。③ The position of the earth in relation to the sun determines the seasons. 地球与太阳之间的相对位置决定一年四季的变化。
22. In 1996, Atlanta hosted the Olympic Games. 一九九六年,亚特兰大举办了奥运会。(p.44 Post-Reading E)
 ▲此处host作动词用,意为"主办""作......的主人""接待"。如: ① Birmingham is hosting this year's trade fair.伯明翰将主办今年的交易会。② Which country is going to host the next World Cup? 下届世界杯由哪一个国家主办? ③ The group was hosted by the ambassador. 这一群人受到了大使的款待。
【注】 host还有"作......的节目主持人"之意,一般用于非正式场合。如: ① She's now hosting her own show. 她正主持自己的节目。② Mr Smith has been hosting the show for two years. 史密斯先生主持该节目有两年了。
【注】 host作名词用时有"主人""东道主""主办(单位、国家)"之意。如: ① Apart from my host, I didn't know a single person there.除了主人外我谁都不认识。② Barcelona was chosen to be the host of the 1992 Olympic Games.巴塞罗纳被选为一九九二年奥运会东道主城市。 ③ The host team and the guest team won each of the games, so they were even with each other. 主队和客队各赢一场,现在他们两队打平了。
【注】host作名词时是指男主人,女主人用hostess,但hostess不能作动词用。如: My hostess greeted me with unexpected warmth. 我的女主人出乎意料地热情欢迎我。
Section III 词汇、语法、综合技能
23. The Native Americans lived by gathering roots, ... 美洲土族民族以采集根茎... 为生。(p.47 Integrating Skills Reading 第一段 第2行)
 * gather v.
 (1) 聚集,集合,召集A crowd soon gathered. 很快聚集起一群人。Gather round and listen, children! 孩子们,围过来听我说。
 (2) 收集,收扰 (分散的东西) Give me a moment to gather my notes together. 给我些时间整理一下笔记。She gathered up her scatted belongs and left. 她把自己的散乱物品收好就走了。
 (3) 搜集,采集(水果等) The small boy gathered mushrooms in the fields. 小男孩在田中采集蘑菇。
 (4) 收割,收获 The harvest has been safely gathered in. 庄稼已妥善收获完毕。
(5) 增加(某事物) The darkness is gathering. 夜色渐浓。The car gathered speed. 汽车速度逐渐加快了。
 辨析:gather与collect
 这两个词都有"聚集"的意思,gather是普通用语,指"集中起来",既指具体的人和物,也可指抽象的印象、思维、力气等。collect是"收集,聚集"之意,指有计划,有选择的收集,强调日积月累的过程,有时和gather通用。He is gathering information. 他在收集信息。The clouds are gathering。and it would probably rain. 云在聚集,也许要下雨。The patient is gathering strength. 病人正在恢复体力。Do you collect stamps? 你集邮吗? His work is to collect information. 他的工作是收集资料。
 联想:altogether adv. 完全,总共; together adv. 在一起,共同; gathering n. 采集,集合
24. They hunted bison, a type of wild animals which used to exist in huge numbers on the plains of America. 土族民族狩猎野牛,这是一种曾经在美洲平原上大量存在过的一种野生动物。(p. 47 第二段第1行)
 ★ type和kind
▲(a)type of作"种类" "类型"解释时,后接单数名词,不用复数名词,该名词前不加任何限定词。例如我们可以说a different type of bicycle,但不可说a different type of a bicycle(或bicycles)如: ① What type of plan is this? 这是一种什么计划? ② The engineer designed a new type of plane. 这位工程师设计了一种新型飞机。
【注】但type作"典范"解释时,其后的名词可以被限定词所修饰。① Abraham Lincoln was a fine type of the American patriotism. 阿巴拉罕·林肯是美国爱国史上的典范。② Liu Hulan was a fine type of the revolutionary here. 刘胡兰是革命英雄人物的典范。③ John is a fine type of school boy. 约翰是学生的典范。
 【注】types后面的名词可用复数,也可用单数,但作主语时相应的谓语动词一律用复数,与types保持一致。如: Several new types of computer(s) are on show.几种新型的计算机正在展出。
 【注】上述type的用法,亦适用于kind,即a kind of后面的名词通常是单数,且该名词前不用冠词或其他限定词,如a certain kind of rose等, 请看下列例句: ①What kind of animal is it? 这是一种什么动物? ② Is this kind of TV set made in Shanghai? 这种电视机是上海制造的吗?
 【注】kinds后的名词既可用单数,也可用复数,但其作主语时,其后的谓语动词应用复数,与kinds保持一致。如: ① These kinds of rose(s) are beautiful to look at. 这几种玫瑰很好看。② There are different kinds of birds in the woods and they sing beautifully. 林子里有各种各样的鸟,它们唱着悦耳动听的歌。
 【注】 a kind of意为"某种"或"一种不甚明确的"。如: ① The dances of the bees are a kind of language. 蜜蜂的舞蹈是一种语言。② I had a kind of suspicion that he was cheating. 我有点怀疑他在欺骗。
 【注】kind of常用在口语中,作状语修饰动词,意为"有点""有几分"。① I kind of thought he would come.我似乎感到他会来的。② I kind of thought this would happen.
我似乎预感到此事会发生。
25. ... while their fur provided warm clothing during cold winters. 冬天取其皮毛御寒。(p. 47 第二段第5行)
★动词provide的用法
▲provide意为"提供""供给",在provide sb. 后常接with介词短语,表示所提供的事物。在provide sth. 后常接for sb.,表示向谁提供。如: ①This book will provide you with the information you need. 这本书会向你提供你所需要的信息。② Food and drink were provided for all of them.向他们全体提供了食物和饮料。③ That hotel provides good meals. 那家旅馆伙食很好。④ These rivers provide water flor irrigation. 这些河流提供了灌溉用水。
【注】 provide亦可作"预防""作好准备""提供生计"解释,常与against或 for连用。如: ① We have to provide against accidents.我们必须做好应付事故的准备。② They had to provide for their old age. 他们得积攒点钱以备在老年时用。③ We will see that au the old folks are provided for from now on. 从现在起,我们要做到老有所养。④ He has a large family to provide for. 他需赡养一大家子人。
【注】 provide还有"规定"之意。如: They enjoy all the rights provided in the constitution. 他们享有宪法所规定的一切权利。
【注】 provide的过去分词可引导条件状语从句,从句中的谓语动词用一般时态,而不用将来时。如: ① You may keep the book another week provided that no one else requires it.只要没有别人要这本书,你还可再借一个星期。② Provided that no objection is raised, we shall hold the meeting here. 如果没有人反对,我们就在这里开会了。
【注】provided that中的that有时可省略。如:He should be home soon provided the buses haven't been held up.只要汽车没误点,他应该就要到家了。
26. From about 1830 onwards in the USA, ... 在美国从大约一八三O年起。(p. 47 第三段第1行)
▲onwards与on同义,后缀-wards常用来构成副词,表示方向,如: eastwards,westwards,southwards,northwards,forwards,backwards,upwards,downwards等。① From now on, we'll study harder than before. 从现在起,我们要比以前更努力地学习。② They went on sailing eastwards, until they saw the land. 他们不断地向东航行,终于看到了陆地。③ From 1990 onwards, the seaside town began to take on a new look. 从一九九O年起,这个海滨小城开始展现新的面貌。④ From 1993 onwards, they tried again and again to go across the desert on foot. 从一九九三年起,他们多次努力要徒步穿过沙漠。⑤ Get back! Step forward and I'll fire. 回去!再向前的话我就开枪了。
27. Settlers made agreements with native American chiefs. 移民者和土著人头领达成协议。(p. 47 第三段第5行)
▲agreement此处作可数名词,意为"协议",常与arrive,reach,keep,break,make,sign等动词连用。如: ① The two countries signed an agreement on nuclear weapons.两国签订了一项关于核武器的协议。② I'm sorry you couldn't arrive at an agreement. 很遗憾你们不能达成协议。③ Many agreements have been made between the two countries. 两国之间签订了很多协议。
 【注】agreement可以后接不定式或从句表示agreement的内容作定语 ① We reached an agreement with them to cooperate fully at all time. 我们与他们达成在任何情况下都合作的协议。② The negotiators came to an agreement that all troops would be withdrawn. 谈判者达成协议,撤出所有部队。
 【注】 agreement可用作不可数名词,意为"意见(或目的等)""一致""同意"。如: ① The two sides failed to reach agreement. 双方未能达成共识。② We are in agreement with their decision. 我们同意他们的决定。③ We are in full agreement with them on all points. 在所有方面我们和他们看法完全一致。④ There's little agreement as to what our policies should be. 关于我们该采取什么政策,意见很不一致。⑤ We have to get their agreement before we go ahead with the plan. 在进行这项计划之前,我们必须得到他们的同意。
28. While early settlers had killed bison for food, ... 早期的移民宰杀野牛是为了充饥... (p.47 Integrating Skills Reading 第四段 第2行)
 * while conj. 在......的同时,当......的时候
(1) while与延续性动词连用,而when既可与延续性动词也可与终止性动词连用。
 (2) 表示一个人的两个动作交替或同时进行时,多用as表示"一边......,一边......";when很少用于这种情况。
 (3) 当表示两个同步发展的情况时,多用as而不用when或while。
 (4) 当表示两个短促行为或事件几乎同时发生时,用as要多于用when。
 (5) while用作并列连词,连接一个并列句,意为"而,却",表示前后意义上的对比和转折。
While he was reading,he fell asleep. 他在读书的时候睡着了。He came while we were having dinner. 我们在吃晚饭时他来了。When he came, we were having supper. 他来时,我们正吃晚饭。(不能用while) When / While I was sleeping, a thief broke in我睡觉时,小偷撬门而入。 He looked behind from time to time as he went. 他一边走,一边不时地向后看。She dances as she sings. 她一边唱歌,一边跳舞。As time went on / by, she became more and more worried. 随着时间的推移,她变得越来越烦躁不安。As children get older,they are getting more and more interested in things about them. 随着孩子们年龄的增长,他们对周围的事物越来越感兴趣。 Just as he caught the flying worm, he gave a loud cry. 他刚抓住那只飞虫,就大声地叫了起来。I thought of it just as you opened your mouth.我刚想起,你就开口说了出来。 Some people are rich while others are poor. 有些人富,有些人穷。I'm interested in sports while my brother is fond of music.我对体育很感兴趣,而我的弟弟爱好音乐。
29. They killed the bison, cut off the skins and left the bodies behind to rot. 他们把野牛杀了,剥去牛皮,抛弃尸体,任其腐烂。(p.47 Integrating Skills Reading 第四段 第4行)
 ★leave...behind的两种用法
▲leave...behind作"留下"解释,是执行者有意识的动作。如: ① The men had all run away leaving only old women and children. 男人们都跑了,只留下年老的妇女和孩子。② I shall leave you behind if you are not quick. 如果你不快点,我就把你丢在后面不管了。③ In their withdrawal,much of the heavy equipment had to be left behind. 他们在撤退时不得不留下许多笨重的东西。 ④ His wife left behind two little girls. 他妻子死后留下两个小女孩。⑤ You'll have to put in some extra work at night if you don't want to get left behind. 如果你不想被别人超过,就必须利用晚上时间做更多的工作。
▲leave behind还有"遗忘" "遗留"之意,为执行者无意识的动作。如: ① 0h,dear! The travelling bag has been left behind. 唉呀!旅行袋忘了拿了。② It left behind a long train of problems and difficulties.这遗留下一连串问题和困难。③ I have left my keys behind at the office. 我把钥匙忘在办公室里了。
30. With fewer bison, grass shoots were not eaten, ... 因为野牛少了,嫩草没有牛吃,... (p.47 Integrating Skills Reading 最后一段 第1行) ▲ with
 (1) 表原因 My hand were blue with cold. 我的双手冻得发紫。The captain was beef-red with anger. 上尉气得满脸通红。The boy trembled with fear. 这男孩害怕得
发抖。
 (2) (表示方式等)......地,......着,以...... You must handle this parcel with care. 这个包裹你须小心轻放。He speaks English with ease and fluency. 她说英语不费力而且流利。She performed the operation with great skill.她极为熟练地给病人施行手术。
(3) (表示工具,手段等)用 Did you write with a pen or pencil? 你用钢笔写还是用铅笔写? It's best to draw lines with a ruler. 用尺子划线最合适。
31. ... which as a result became less good for growing plants. 这就越来越不适合植物的生长。(p. 47 最后一段第4行)
 ★as a result和as a result of
▲as a result意为"因此""所以",后面的内容表示结果,而as a result of则意为"因为(由于)......",of后面的内容表示原因;请对照下列例句,辨析这两个词组之间的差别。① My car broke down and as a result, I was unable to get there. 我的车出了故障,因此我没能到那里去。② The flight was delayed as a result of fog. 因有雾,该航班误点。③ We went on walking in spite of the rain, as a result, we all got a bad cold. 我们不顾下雨继续往前走,结果都得了重感冒。④ He was late as a result of the traffic jam.由于交通阻塞,他迟到了。
【注】as a result后面常接一个分句,as a result of常接名词、代词或动名词。
32. ... , and the insects which lived on these plants died out. 原来靠那些植物卫生的昆虫也都死了。(p. 47 最后一段第3行)
 ★die out的含义
 (1) (指家族, 物种)死光, 灭绝, 绝迹 These animals have already died out.这些动物已经绝种。
 (2) (指习俗,做法)消失,过时 ① The old traditions are dying out. 旧传统正在消失。② That style of music died out ten years ago.那种音乐十年前就听不到了。
 (3) 作熄灭解,out为副词。 The fire has died out. 火熄了。
拓展:die away 消逝,平息,静下来; die down 平息,熄灭; die for 迫切想要; die from 由于......而死; die off 一个个死掉,绝种
【注】 注意die out与die away的区别,后者主要指风、声、光等自然现象逐渐停止、消失。如: ① The wind has died away again. 风又停了。 ② The sound of the car died away in the distance. 汽车的声响在远处消逝。
【注】die out意为"消亡""灭绝",而die off则意为"(一个一个)地死亡"。如: ① The leaves of this plant are dying off. 这株植物的叶子正在一片一片地凋谢。② The deer in the forest are dying off from disease. 森林中的鹿正因疾病而陆续死亡。
33. This in turn had an effect on the food supply for wolves. 这样反过来又影响了狼的食物供应。(p. 47 最后一段第2行)
▲in turn意为"依次""逐个地""转而""反过来"。如: ① Theory is based on practice and in turn serves practice. 理论以实践为基础,反过来又为实践服务。② We'll cross the bridge in turn. 我们将挨个过桥。③ The students answered the teacher's questions in turn.学生们依次回答老师的问题。④ The boys were summoned in turn to see the examiner. 男孩们被依次叫进去见考官。⑤ He spends too much time on maths, and this in turn affects the progress of his other subjects.他在数学上花的时间太多,这同时影响他的其他学科的进步。
 【注】以上用法中的turn不能用作复数。
 【注】 take turns at (或in) doing sth. 意为"轮流做某事",相当于do sth. in turn。注意两短语中名词的单复数。① Mary and Helen took turns at sitting up with their sick mother. 玛丽和海伦轮流熬夜陪伴她们生病的母亲。② The athletes took turns in singing songs and reciting poems. 运动员们一个接一个地唱歌和朗诵诗。
 【注】 turn也可解释为"短时间的活动", 相当于a short period of activity, turn在这里作可数名词用。如: ① I'll take a few hams round the deck before I go to bed. 就寝之前我要在甲板上散一会儿步。② I'll take a turn at the oars now if you want a rest. 如果你要休息,我来划一会儿浆。
 拓展:take one's turn 轮班(做某事); take turns 轮流(做某事); by turns 轮流; on the turn 将好转




高二英语Unit17 Disabilities知识点总复习教案
Section I 课前准备、听力、口语
1. Talk about disability? 谈一谈残疾 (p. 49 Goal 1)
* disability和inability
 ▲ dis-和in-都是表示否定意义的前缀,但用在ability前,表示不同的意思,disability意为"残疾",而inability意为"无能力""没办法"。请比较下列例句,注意这两个词的不同意思。① I was surprised at her inability to do things promptly. 她不能迅速处事,我感到惊异。② She is deaf,but refuses to let her disability prevent her from doing what she wants to do. 她失聪,但她不让自己的残疾妨碍自己去做想做的事。③ His inability to pay his debts made his parents worried. 他无力偿还债务使他父母亲很着急。④ Her lack of experience is a severe disability. 她缺少经验是一个严重的障碍。
 【注】ability的形容词是able,其前也有两个否定前缀,dis-和an-表示不同的意思,disable是动词,意为"使......伤残",而unable则是形容词,表示"不能的""不会的"。如:① That illness disabled him and left him unable to work. 那病使他残疾,不能工作。② An accident disabled him from teaching. 一次交通事故使他再也不能教书了。③ He seems unable to understand the simplest instructions. 他看来似乎连最简单的说明也不懂。④ He was unable to sleep at night because of his anxiety. 他因焦虑而晚上睡不着。
2. Imagine what difficulties and dangers you might face. 想像一下你可能面对的困难和危险。(p.49 Warming up Ex.1) ▲ imagine
 (1) vt. imagine + 名词/代词/动名词/从句 ① Can you imagine a fat man like that climbing? 你能想像得出那样胖的人爬山吗? ② I can't imagine asking him for money. 我难以想像向他开口要钱。
 注意:imagine不接不定式。只接动名词 ① It's hard to imagine a greater threat to world peace. 难以想像还有对世界和平更大的威胁。② You can't imagine how I missed the bird. 你想像不到我是多么想念那只鸟。
 注意:imagine sb. to be结构,但不能说imagine sb. to do. 如: You imagine yourself (to be) in the place. 设想你处在这个位子上。
 (×) I can't imagine you to do anything worse.
 (√ ) I can't imagine you doing anything worse.
 我难以想像你还能做更差的事。
 (2) imagine可用于双重问句形式,其结构为特殊疑问句,imagine部分为插入部分,类似动词还有think, believe, suggest, suppose, guess等。① What do you think his explanation is? 你认为他的解释是什么? ② Which mouse do you imagine we should pick out? 你认为我们该挑哪种鼠标?
 注意:该句型为特殊疑问句形式,所以回答时应用特殊疑问句的回答形式。-- How much do you think this car cost? 这车你认为值多少钱? -- I think it costs 4, 000 dollars. 我认为值4 000美元。
 注意:此类动词反问句的构成有两种情况:当主句主语是第一人称时,反问根据从句;当主句主语为二、三人称时根据主句。① I think she is the best student in our class, isn't she? 我认为她是我们班最好的学生,不是吗? ② She thinks that he should have finished his work, doesn't she? 她认为他已完成了工作,是吗?
 (3) imagine,believe,suppose,think等词在构成否定句时一般要否定前移,同时注意这些词的肯定、否定答复。① I don't think he will be the likeliest candidate for the manager of human resource department. 我认为他将不是人力资源部经理最可能的人选。② I don't think that he did the best. 我认为他并非最好。③ --Do you think Tom is the best student in our class? 你认为汤姆在我们班上是最好的学生吗? -- Yes, I think so. (肯定答复)是,我认为是。-- No, I think not / I don't think so. (否定回答)不,我认为不是。
 联想:(派)imagination n. 想像,想像力;空想; imaginary adj. 想像中的、虚构的;imaginative adj. 富于想像力的;有创见的image n. 形象、印象。
 ▲ might
 情态动词might表推测"可能",另外表推测的情态动词还有must,may,can,could等词,用来表示对现在情况推测时后加动词原形;对过去情况推测时后加have done形式;might可能性比must,may弱,且must只用于肯定句,can只用于否定或疑问句。① We'd better hurry. Our teacher must be waiting for us. 快点,我们老师肯定正在等我们。② You mustn't play with the knife. It might
hurt your hand. 不要玩刀子,它会割伤你的手。③ Peter may come with us, but he isn't sure. 彼得可能会跟我们来,但他拿不定主意。④ He must have finished his homework. 他肯定已经完成作业了。⑤ He cannot have attended your lecture yesterday. I saw him in the cinema. 他昨天不可能去听你的演讲了,我在电影院看见他了。
3. Share your ideas with the class and try to think of ways to make public places safer and better for the disabled. 跟全班同学分享你的想法并尽力想出办法使公共场所对于残疾人更安全、更好。( p.49 Warming up Ex.2) ▲ share
 (1) vt. 合用、分担、分享 ① Everyone in the house share the bathroom. 在此房间的人共用此浴室。② She never shares any of her husband's worries. 她从不担她丈夫的忧愁。③ May I share your umbrella? 我可以用你的伞吗?
 短语:share...wire... 与......共用......
 ① Let me share the newspaper with you. 让我们一起看这张报纸。
 ② I'll share the cost with you. 我将与你共同分担这费用。
 (2) vi. 共用、分享share in
 ① I haven't enough books for everyone, some of you will have to share. 我没有足够多的书提供给每一个人;你们中的一部分要与人合用一本。
 ② Let's share in your joy. 让我们共享你的快乐。
 (3) n. 份 a share一份
 拓展:share and share alike 平分、均摊; go shares平分
take one's share 尽自己的一份责任; shareware 共享软件
share holding 股权; share holder 股票持有人
▲ make复合结构的几种情况
 make + n. (宾语) + 补语
名词 make sb. a singer
形容词 make the door open
省to不定式 make sb. do sth. (被动时不省to)
过去分词make sb. understood
① They made him captain. 他们选他当队长。② The news made her sad. 这消息使她悲伤。③ They made me repeat it. = I was made to repeat it. 他们让我重说。④ Speak louder in order to make yourself heard. 声音大一点,以便让别人听到你说什么。
 拓展:make常用短语: be made of (看出材料)由......制成; be made from (看不出材料)由......制成; be made into 制成......; be made in 产自......; be made up of 由......组成; make up 编造,弥补,组成; make the beds 铺床; make laws 制定法律; make a noise 喧闹; make progress 取得进步; make war 发动战争; make peace 讲和; make a mistake 出错; make tea 泡茶; make plans 制定计划; make a fire 生火; make enemies 树敌; make a fortune 发财; make a price 定价; make a promise 许诺; make it 约定、实现目标; make oneself at home 别客气
Section II 阅读
4. I know people are trying to help, but I wish they wouldn't treat me as if I were a child. 我知道人们试图帮助我,但是我希望他们不要把我看成孩子。(p.51 Reading 第一段 第1行) ▲ try
 (1) vt. 尝试、打算、努力做 * try to so sth. 尽力做......① I'll work hard and try to improve. 我努力工作并努力提高。② He tried to break away from me. 他想摆脱我。
 (2) vt. 试用、试试。try + 名词 / 代词 / -ing ① Try my pen. 试试我的钢笔。② We're going to try a new treatment. 我将试用一种新疗法。③ He tried writing out his view. 他试着写出自己的想法。④ Try knocking at the back door if nobody hears you at the front door. 如果敲前门没人听到,那就试着敲敲后门。
 注意:try to do和try doing的不同意义;还有许多后接不定式和动名词时意义不同的动词,常用的有:
mean to do 打算做......; mean doing 意味着......; regret to do sth. 遗憾要做; regret doing 遗憾做过某事; forget to do 忘记去做...; forget doing 忘记做过......
 remember to do 记得要做某事
 remember doing 记得做过某事
 stop to do 停下来做(另一件事)
 stop doing停止做 (正在做的事)
 go on to do 继续做(另一件事)
 go on doing继续(同一件事)
 (3) n. 试一试 have a try试一试
 辨析:try to do与 manage to do
 try to do sth. 为尽力做某事,不强调结果,而manage to do 相当于 succeed in doing 强调实现某一目标。
5. ... and she won an award for young scientists last. 去年曾获小科学家奖。(p.51 Reading 第一段第4行)
 * award和reward
 ▲ award作名词时意思是"奖金""奖品"。如:① The Olympic winner received a gold medal as an award. 奥林匹克优胜者获得一枚金质奖章作为奖品。② He received an award of 1000 dollars for having saved a little boy. 他因救了一个小男孩而得到一千美元的奖金。
 ▲ award可作为动词用,意为"授予""奖给""给予"。如:① The university awarded her a scholarship. 学校授予她奖学金。② They awarded her a medal for bravery.她表现勇敢,他们授予她奖金。③ The judge awarded a large sum of money to those hurt by the fire. 法官判给在火灾中受伤的人一大笔钱。
 ▲ reward作名词时是"酬金""报酬"之意。如:① He received no reward for his service. 他们的服务没获得酬谢。② She offered a reward of $2000 for information about her missing son. 她悬赏二千美元,寻找失踪儿子的下落。
 ▲ reward也可作动词用,意为"报酬""报偿",通常与介词for或with连用。如:① Miners feel they ale not well rewarded for the dangerous work they do. 煤矿工人觉得和他们所做的危险工作相比,他们的报酬太低了。② His effort was rewarded with remarkable success. 辉煌的成就是他辛勤努力的丰硕果实。③ How can I reward you for helping? 我如何报答你的帮助呢?
6. She uses a wheelchair to get around and it often takes her a little longer to do everyday things, such as getting out of bed, getting dressed and going to classes. 她用轮椅到处走动,一些日常事情像起床、穿衣、上课她都得比别人用去稍多一点儿的时间。(p.51 Reading 第一段倒数第2 - 1行)
 ▲ get around在本课中意为"行走""到处走动",也可用get about或get round。如:① He was ill last week, but he's getting around now. 上星期他病了,但他现在已起床行走了。 ② Nowadays people get about much mote than they used to. 现在人们外出旅行比过去多得多了。③ She gets around quite a lot, working for an inter- national company. 她常外出,为一家国际公司做事。④ All this snow and ice make it difficult for people to get about. 这些冰雪使人们行走困难。
 ▲ get around还有"(消息)传开""散布"之意。如:① How did the story of her marriage get about? 她结婚的事是怎么传开的? ② It got around that the school was in great need of teachers. 据传那个学校非常需要老师。③ It's getting around that the peace talks have broken down. 据传和谈已经失败。④ It must not get about that he is ill.他生病的消息可千万不要传出去。
 ▲such as此处用来列举事物,表示"例如..." "像...那样的"。如:① Nouns such as book, pen, apple and toy are countable nouns. 书籍、钢笔、苹果和玩具之类的名词是可数名词。② There are few poets such as Keats and Shelley. 像济慈和雪莱那样的诗人现在很少了。③ The farm grows various kinds of crops, such as wheat, corn, cotton and soybeans. 这个农场种植各种各样的庄稼,例如麦子、玉米、棉花和大豆。
 【注】such as表示列举事物时,不可将前面所述数量全部列出。例如我们不能说He knows six languages, such as English, Chinese, Russian, French, Japanese, and Spanish, 但可以说He knows six languages, namely English,Chinese,Russian,French,Japanese and Spanish. 他懂六种语言,即英语、汉语、俄语、法语、日语和西班牙语。也可以说:He knows six languages, such as English and Chinese.他懂六种语言,如英语、汉语。
 【注】such as后不可接副词性短语。例如我们不能说You can do it in more than one way, such as by the use of soda. 你可以用不止一种方法做此事,比如说使用苏打水。去掉by 后句子就正确了。
 【注】such as可引导定语从句,这时such as可连用,也可以分开用。如:① They felt such heat in the jungle as they bad never felt before. 他们在丛林中感受到了以前从未感受到的酷热。② He returned to us later that day with tobacco, matches and such things as were needed. 那天晚些时候,他带着烟叶、火柴等我们所需要的东西回来了。③ I never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过他讲的那类故事。④ We had hoped to give you a chance such as nobody else ever had. 我们曾想给你一次任何其他人都未曾得到过的机会。⑤ Such money as he earned was spent on spirits and tobacco. 他挣的那点钱都花在烟酒上了。
 ▲ get dressed意为"穿衣",此处get是连系动词,意为"进入或变为某种状态",后面多跟形容词或过去分词作表语。如:① You didn't get hurt in any way? 你没伤着哪儿吧? ② What's more, they often got stuck in the mud. 而且他们常常陷到泥里。③ Alice has got married, don't you know? 艾丽丝结婚了,你不知道吗? ④ He got more and more absorbed in the work. 他的心思越来越集中在这项工作上了。⑤ Don't get caught in the storm. 别撞上暴雨了。⑥ Five soldiers got wounded in the battle.在这次战斗中,五位战士受了伤。
7. She has already created many programmes and... 他以制作了许多程序。(p.51 Reading 第二段 第1行)
 ▲ create
 (1) vt. 创造,创建,创作 ① God created the world. 上帝创造了世界。② A novelist creates characters and a plot.小说家创造人物并设计故事情节。③ The programme created more jobs. 这个项目带来了更多就业机会。
 (2) vt. 引起,产生 The outrageous book created a hit.那部耸人听闻的书曾轰动一时。
 (3) vi. 生气,惹事 She really created because she wasn't served first. 她的确生气了,因为没有首先被服务。
 辨析:make与create: make与create指"创造"时可换用,但指"创作..."引起""产生"意义时一般用create而不用make. 如: (√) God created / made man. 上帝创造了人。 (×) He made the characters. (√) He created the characters. 他塑造了这些人物。
 联想:(派)creative adj. 有创造力的,创造性的creator n. the Creator上帝,造物主;创造者 creation n. 创造、产生creature n.生物,动物,人
8. We know that we cannot let physical disabilities limit a person's life. 我们懂得我们不能让身体的残疾来限制一个人的生活。(p.51 Reading 第二段 第4 行) ▲ let
 let v. 使、让let sb. do后跟省to不定式结构,类似词还有make, have等,但get sb. to do不可用get sb. do形式,同时注意在主动语态下省去to;如果该动词用被动形式时要加上to。① Let me open the door. 让我打开门。
② They made her wait. = She was made to wait. 他们叫她等待。
 拓展:be to let 出租; let down 使失望; let go 放开、松手; let off 开(枪),放(炮),放过,宽恕; let out 放走,发出; let up 减弱,放松、停止
9. The Beijing Union University has launched a special education college where gifted disabled students receive the help they need to succeed. 北京联合大学开办了一个特殊教育学院。在那里有才华的残疾学生能得到取得成功所需要的帮助。(p.51 Reading 第三段第3 - 4行)
 ▲首先我们来看这个句子的结构,句子的宾语a special education college后接了个定语从句where gifted disabled students receive the help,而这个定语从句中的宾语the help又接了一个定语从句they need to succeed.
 ▲动词launch在本句中作"开办""开始从事"解。如:① Three years later,he launched a new enterprise. 三年后他创办了一个新企业。② She launched herself on her nursing career. 她开始从事护士工作。③ His friends launched him in business by lending him money. 朋友们借钱给他经商。
 ▲launch的原意是"发射""使(船)首次下水"。如:① They launched another spacecraft into outer space. 他们又向外层空间发射了一艘宇宙飞船。② A bow launches arrow into the air. 弓把箭射入空中。③ The second missile was launched successfully. 第二枚导弹成功地发射了。
 ▲ gifted是形容词,由名词gift加ed后构成,意思是"有才华的""有天赋的"。如:① Henry's sister is a gifted pianist. 亨利的姐姐是一位很有才华的钢琴家。② The child is gifted at writing. 这孩子有写作天赋。
 ▲ gift是名词,意为"才能""天赋",后常跟介词for或of。如:① She has a gift for foreign languages. 她有学习外语的天赋。② Rudolf had the gift of being liked by everyone he met. 鲁道夫有人见人爱的才能。
 ▲ gift的原意是"礼物",如a birthday gift生日礼物,表示"给......的礼物",gift后的介词用to或for,如gift前没有动词则介词用to,如有行为动词,则应按动词的用法而定,如动词buy常与for搭配,而动词give后则常接to。如:① His gift to his wife was a necklace. 他给妻子的礼物是一条项链。② We bought a gift for our mother on Mother's Day. 母亲节我们为母亲买了一件礼物。③ We gave a gift to oar teacher. 我们给老师送了件礼物。
【注】注意gift与present的区别。gift含义较广,可表示任何"赠送物",把某物甚至是自己不需要的东西送给别人,以及考试中极容易的送分题都用gift来表示,而present一般只作"礼物"解释,通常只指具体的物品。如:① I gave him a second-hand book, which was my gift to him. 我给了他一本旧书,这就是我给他的礼物。② In the examination paper, Question 2 was a gift. 试卷中的第二道题是送分题。③ He bought Mary a wedding present. 他为玛丽买了一件结婚礼物。
10. One-third of the students are blind or...其他的是聋人或... (p.51 Reading 第三段 第5 - 6 行)
▲ blind
 (1) adj. 瞎的、看不见的 ① No one is so blind as those who won't see facts. 不看事实的人眼最瞎。② He is blind in one eye. 他一只眼瞎。③ He is blind to his faults. 他对自己的错误视而不见。
 (2) adj. 盲从的、缺乏判断力的 I have a blind port where modern art is concerned. 我对现代艺术一窍不通。
 (3) adj."瞎(猜)""无法控制的""不经思考的" ① I just made a blind guess at the answer. 答案是我瞎猜的。② He disliked the man in a blind fury. 他不喜欢这个愤怒的人。
 (4) vt. 使瞎、使看不见 ① He was blinded in the war.他在战争中弄瞎了双眼 ② His feelings for her beauty blinded him to her faults. 他只看到她的美貌而看不到她的缺点。
 联系:deaf 聋dumb 哑lame 瘸
 常用短语:turn a blind eye to 假装没看见; turn a deaf ear 假装没听见; blind alley 死胡同; be blind to 视而不见; blind leading the blind 瞎子给瞎子带路;自己不行还带别人
11. They not only learn how to assist disabled people, but also... 他们不仅能学会怎样去帮助残疾人,而且... (p.52 Reading 第一段 第3行) ▲ assist
 (1) vt. / vi. 帮助 ① The headmaster's deputy assists with a lot of things. 副校长帮助那校长做了很多事。② You will be required to assist Mrs Smith in preparing a report. 你将要协助史密斯夫人准备一份报告。
 (2) vi. 参与、出席 The president assisted at the ceremony. 总统参加了该仪式。
 联想:assistance n. 帮助、援助; assistant n. 助手、助理 adj. 助理的;
 拓展:assist (sb.) in / with sth. 辅助(某人)某事
    assist (sb.) in doing sth. 辅助(某人)做某事
    assist (sb.) to do sth. 辅助(某人)做某事
    assist at / in sth. 出席,参加某事
12. One of the teachers at the special education college says that their aim is to help disabled students understand that they can play a valuable role within society. 特殊教育学院的一位老师说他们的目的是帮助残疾学生明白,他们在社会上能够起到有价值的作用。(p.52 Reading 第一段 第4 - 6 行)
▲ play a role (part) (in)
 play a role (part) (in)意为"起......作用""扮演......角色"。如:① He played a leading role in getting the delegates to agree on the final document. 在使代表们都同意最后的那个文件这一点上他起了主要的作用。② China is playing an increasingly important part in safe- guarding the world peace. 中国对捍卫世界和平正起着越来越重要的作用。③ The press plays an important role in the life of a nation. 新闻界对一个国家的生活起着重要的作用。④ The U. N. plays an important role in international relations. 联合国在国际关系方面扮演着重要角色。⑤ Oliver played the role of Hamlet. 奥立佛扮演了哈姆雷特这个角色。⑥ The teacher plays a very active part in this type of classroom activity. 在这类课堂活动中教师起了非常积极的作用。
13. They need recognition, more than sympathy and help.他们需要认可,不仅仅是同情和帮助。(p.52 Reading 第一段 倒数 第2 - 1行)
 ▲ more than此处作"不只是""不仅仅"解,此为more than后接名词或动词时之意。如:① His report is more than a survey. 他的报告不只是一份调查。② Hibernation is more than sleep. It's a very deep sleep. 冬眠不只是睡觉,而是很深的睡眠。③ He more than smiled.he laughed outright. 他不只是微笑,简直是大笑了。④ Mr Brown is more than a teacher.He is an elder and friend as well. 布朗先生不只是一位老师,他还是一位长者和朋友。
 ▲ more than用在形容词前面、动词前面,意为"非常""十分"。如:① They were more than glad to help. 他们非常乐意帮忙。② I'm more than happy to give you my opinion. 我非常高兴给你出点主意。③ I suppose he'll be more than likely to come. 我想他很有可能会来。④ She was dressed more than simply. 她穿着十分朴素。⑤ Your answer more than satisfied me. 你的回答使我非常满意。
 ▲ 在more than前加上no,not much,nothing时,意思是"只不过是"。如:① He is no more than a policeman. 他只不过是个警察。② It wasn't much more than a formality. 这只不过是礼节而已。③ At the moment our tree looks like nothing more than a branch. 现在我们这棵树看起来只不过是根枝条而已。④ The newly discovered notes are nothing more than his personal journal. 最新发现的笔记只不过是他的个人日记而已。
 ▲ more than后接含有情态动词can的从句,可表示否定意义。① That is more than I can tell. 那我就不知道了。② What he said and did is more than I can stand. 我不能忍受他所说的话和所做的事。
 ▲ more than 还可表示"与其说......不如说......",意思是肯定前者否定后者。如:① He's more mad than stupid. 与其说他愚蠢不如说他疯了。② He always seemed old to me like a grandfather more than a father.
在我看来,他似乎很老,与其说像父亲,倒不如说更像祖父。③ The girl is more shy than unsocial. 与其说这女孩不爱社交,不如说她害羞。
 ▲ more...than前面加否定词no有两种意思:一是作"至多""仅仅" "不超过"解;二是作"和......一样不"解,意为前后两者都不。如:① The area they are working is no more than thirty square metres. 他们工作的地方最多三十平方米。② It's a beautiful cottage, no more than five minutes from the beach. 这所小农舍很美,只需五分钟即可到海滩。③ He is no more fit to be a teacher than I am. 他和我一样都不适合做教师。④ A whale is no more a fish than a horse is. 鲸和马一样都不是鱼。⑤ I could no more do that than you.你不能做那件事,我也不能做。
 【注】no more than作"与......一样的"解,即否定前后两者时,与not more than完全不同。请注意比较下列例句:① He is not more diligent than you. 他不比你用功。② He is no more diligent than you. 他和你一样不用功。
 ▲ sympathy
 (1) 同情的、体谅的 be sympathetic with 对......有同情心的
 (2) 赞同、支持的be sympathetic to 对......赞同
 sympathize vi. 同情,赞同。
 sympathize with sb. in sth. 在某方面赞同某人
 短语:sympathy for / towards sb. 对某人表示同情; sympathy between sb. and sb. 志同道合; have no sympathy with sb. / sth.不同意某人的观点; have some sympathy with sb. / sth. 同意某人的观点
14. ... and it has inspired many of them to believe that they can realise their dreams. 他使的许多盲童受到鼓舞和激励,认识到他们可以实现自己的梦想。(p.52 Reading 第二段 第3行) * 动词inspire的用法
 ▲ 动词inspire意为"鼓舞" "激励" "驱使",后接名词、代词、介词短语、to结构或不定式作宾语补足语。如:① We need a new captain who can inspire the team.我们需要一个能鼓舞全队的新队长。② He had the example of his father to inspire and guide him. 他以父亲为榜样来激励和引导自己。③ I hope this success will inspire you to great efforts. 我希望这次成功能激励你作出更大的努力。④ What inspired you to change your name? 是什么驱使你改名的? ⑤ He succeeded in inspiring the party to continue reform. 他成功地激励这个党继续进行改革。
 ▲ inspire可作"激起""唤起(某人的某种思想、感情)"解,常与介词in或with连用。如:① The memory of his mother inspired his best music. 他对母亲的追忆使他写出最好的音乐。② His selflessness inspired them with respect. 他的忘我精神使他们肃然起敬。③ This inspired in them a lure for learning. 这使他们产生了学习的热情。④ He inspired confidence in us. 他使我们获得了信心。⑤ The news inspired the soldiers with redoubled courage. 这消息使战士们勇气倍增。
15. Zijie says he was inspired and motivated by the magazine:... 志杰说,他就是受到这本杂志的激发和鼓励。(p.52 Reading 第三段 第4行)
* 动词motivate的用法
 ▲动词motivate意为"是......的动机" "激发" "引起"。如:①The murder was motivated by hatred. 仇恨是谋杀的动机。② He was motivated by his wish to help me, and expected nothing in return. 他只是想帮助我,不图任何回报。③ A good teacher has to be able to motivate his students. 一个好老师应该能激发学生的兴趣。④ Would you say that he was motivated only by a desire for power?你是说他的动机仅仅是对权力的渴求吗?
 ▲ motivate后可接不定式作宾语补足语。如:① If you can motivate them to be interested, I'm sure they could do very well. 如果你能激发他们的兴趣,我肯定他们能干得很好。② The plan is designed to motivate the workers to work hard. 这一计划是为激发工人努力工作而设定的。③ There is little to motivate these kids to work hard at school. 没有什么东西可以刺激这些小孩努力学习。
16. It is also often disappointing to find that other people do not feel comfortable together with someone who is disabled. 令人沮丧的是,人们常常发现其他人同残疾人在一起时会觉得不舒服。(p.52 Reading 最后一段 第2 - 3行) ▲ together
 (1) bring together使和解、使言归于好 ① We hope to bring the two enemies close enough together to make peace.我们希望敌对双方能和解以获取和平。② I'm not sure that John and Mary can be brought together. 我不敢肯定约翰和玛丽是否可以和解。
 (2) get together 聚会、联欢。① Families always get together at a wedding. 婚礼上各个家庭总在一起联欢。②We usually get together once a week. 我们通常每周聚会一次。
 (3) go together 相好、交朋友 They have been going together for two years. 他们已交友两年了。
 (4) hold together 成立,站得住 The argument doesn't hold together well. 该辩解不成立。
 (5) put together拼起来 The vase broke, but I managed to put it together again. 这花瓶破了,但我设法又将它拼了起来。
 (6) together with 和......一道,同......一起 ① He sent her some roses together with a letter. 他送给她许多玫瑰并附带着一封信。② My parents together with me went to the cinema yesterday. 我父母和我昨天去看电影了。
注意:together with连接并列主语时谓语动词根据其前面的名词决定。Tom together with three girls comes in.汤姆与三个女孩走进来。
17. I have learnt to live with my body as it is and adjusted my way to life. Maybe it is time for the rest of society to accept me as I am and get used to the fact that while I may not be able to walk, there are many other great things I can do. 我已经学会了接受自己有残疾的身体,而且已经适应了自己的生活方式,也许是时候让社会上的其他人接受象我这样的人了。他们将会习惯这个事实,虽然我们无法走路,但我们可以做许多其他的大事。(p.52 Reading 最后一段 倒数第3 - 1行)
 ▲adjust意为"适应""调整"常与介词to连用。如:① I soon adjusted myself to my new job. 我很快适应了新的工作。② The body will soon adjust itself to the weather here. 身体很快就会适应这里的气候的。③ These desks and seats call be adjusted to the heights of any child. 这些课桌椅可以按孩子的身高进行调整。④ Can you adjust the light on my bike so that it shines on the road? 你能替我把自行车上的灯调整一下,使光线照在路上吗? ⑤ Astronauts in flight must adjust to weightlessness. 宇航员飞行时必须适应失重状态。⑥ The teacher adjusted his methods to suit the needs of slower children. 这老师调整教法,以适应差生的需要。⑦ He stopped to try to adjust his vision to the faint starlight. 他停下来把视力调整一下,以适应微弱的星光。⑧ You'll get better reception if you adjust the antenna. 调整一下天线就能接收到更好的图像。
 ▲ get used to = become / be used to习惯于......
 这两个短语均指动作,表状态时用be used to句型,此短语中的to皆为介词,所以后多接名词、代词或动名词。① I'm not used to being treated like this. 我不习惯被这样对待。② I have become used to the diet. 我已开始习惯了这种饮食
 注意:Water can be used to make electricity. 水可以用来发电。此句中的to为不定式,"be used to" 意为"被用来(做)"。
 拓展:类似常用短语还有: stick to 坚持; lead to 通向、导致; object to 反对; pay a attention to 注意; pay visit to 参观; prefer...to... 更喜欢......; sentence sb. to 宣判某人......; beat sb. to 打击某人......; refer to 提及、谈到、涉及; come to 谈到、涉及; be up to 总计、忙于做某事; devote... to 致力于......; get down to 开始着手(做); see to 处理、负责、照顾 (以上短语中的to均为介词)
 ▲ while 用法小结 (用作连词)
 (1) (引导状语从句) 当......时候;和......同时 ① We must strike while the iron is hot. 我们要趁热打铁。② They arrived while we were having dinner. 他们来时我们正在吃晚饭。③ While he read, I cooked the dinner. 他在看书时,我在做饭。④ He was drinking orange juice while the rest of us drank whisky. 我们喝威士忌酒时他喝橘汁。⑤ I'll be kind to him while you are away. 你不在时我会好好待他。
 (2) 构成省略句。(主句的主语与从句主语一致,从句中含有系动词be时从句中的主语和系动词均可省略) ① His fingers trembled while doing it. 他做那件事时手发抖。② He had an accident while on his way to school.在上学路上他出了事故。
 (3) 而、可是 The countryside is quiet while city is noisy. 乡村是安静的,而城市是喧闹的。
 (4) 尽管、虽然(多用于句首) ① While I admit his good points I can see his bad. 尽管我承认他的长处,但我也看到了他的不足。② While I like the color of the hat, I do not like its shape. 尽管我喜欢那顶帽子的颜色,但我不喜欢它的外形。③ While I am willing to, I would like it better if you went. 虽然我愿意去,但你要是去我就更愿意了。
 (5) 只要 While there is life there is hope. 只要有生命就有希望。
 辨析:while,when与as "当......时候": while 强调同时性或某时间段内一种情况发生时另一种情况出现,与延续性动词连用;when可与延续或非延续性动词连用,在强调"当时""这时"之意时只能用when;as强调同时性,指"一边......一边......""一事发生,另一事立刻发生"。 ① You carry on with the work while I have a rest. 我休息时你继续工作。② Someone knocked at the door while / when I was doing my homework. 我正在做作业时有人敲门。③ I was about to go out when the telephone rang. 我正要出去,电话铃响了。④ As the sun rose the fog disappeared. 太阳一升起来雾立刻散了。⑤ He smiled as he passed. 他走过时笑了笑。
 辨析:while与but: 二者都有"而""然而"之意,但while强调二者的对比而but强调前后的转折关系。① He would like to go, but he can't. 他想去,但不能去。② Their country has plenty of oil, while ours has none. 他们国家石油丰富,而我国一点石油都没有。
Section III 词汇语法、综合技能
18. Every four years, mentally disabled athletes come together to take part in the Special Olympics. 智障运动员每四年聚会一次,参加特殊奥运会。(p.55 Integrating Skill 第一段 第1行) * every的一种用法
 ▲ 此处every用在数词前,如every two (three,etc.),意为"每两个(三......)个......"。如:① I go there every three days. 我每三天去那里一次。② The American people elect a president every four years. 美国人四年选一次总统。③ There is a bus to the station every ten minutes. 每十分钟有一辆公共汽车进站。④ They stopped and rested every five miles. 他们每五英里停下来休息一会儿。⑤ Nine women have lost jobs for every five men. 每五个男子失业就有九个女子失业。
 【注】也可以跟序数词表示同样的意思。如:① The Olympics are held every fourth year. 奥林匹克运动会每四年举行一次。② It has been snowing, roughly every third day. 近来大约每三天就要下一次雪。
 【注】值得注意的是表示"每隔......"。要用every other或every second。如"每隔一天",要说every other day或every second day。① I went home every other week.我每隔一周回家一次。 ② "Please write every other line." said the teacher. 老师说:"请隔行写"。
19. Just like the regular Olympic Games, the events are surrounded by grand ceremony and... 正如通常举办的奥运会一样。(p.55 Integrating Skill 第一段 第2行)
 * event, incident和accident
 ▲ 这三个词都表示"事件",但各有不同,event一般表示比较重大的事件或体育运动的比赛项目。如:① A daughter's marriage is quite an event for a mother. 女儿的婚姻对一个母亲来说确实是件大事。② The signing of the Declaration of Independence was an important event.《独立宣言》的签定是重大事件。③ The next event will be 100 metres. 下一个比赛项目是一百米赛跑。④ The first day at school is a big event in a child's life. 上学第一天在孩子的一生中是件大事。
 ▲incident是指"(不寻常的或令人不快的)事情、小事情、插曲"。① Let's forget the whole incident. 忘了那件不愉快的事吧! ② There was a funny incident when the fat woman couldn't get out of the car. 当那个胖女人下不了小汽车时有一段滑稽的插曲。③ That was one 0f the strangest incidents in my life. 那是我一生中最奇怪的事之一。
 ▲ incident也可以表示引起战争、争端的事件;可作为battle,war一类词的委婉说法。如:① Frontier incidents have been common along the border between the two countries. 两国常发生边界事件。② The diplomatic incident was caused by misunderstanding. 这一外交事件是由误解造成的。
 ▲accident多指"不愉快的、意外的、不测之事导致不良后果"。如:① He lost both his legs in a train accident.
他在一次火车事故中失去了双腿。② There were several people injured in the traffic accident. 在这次交通事故中有好几个人受了伤。
 ▲ accident也可以指中性的事情。如:the accident of birth出生这件事。the accident that France and Germany have a common border法国和德国有共同的边界线的情况。
 ▲ surround by / with
 surround by / with意思是"四周都是" "处于......的气氛中"。如:① Ours is a hilly area surrounded on three sides by mountains. 我们这儿是一个山区,三面都是大山。② The garden was large, surrounded by a high wall and shaded by thick trees. 这座花园很大,周围有一道高墙,里面有茂密的树林。③ They love being surrounded by familiar possessions. 他们喜欢周围摆放一些熟悉的东西。④He found himself surrounded with an atmosphere of kindness. 他发现自己处在友好的气氛之中。⑤ They were surrounded with dangers they knew. 他们知道他们处于危险之中。
 【注】surrounded with / by实际上是个过去分词短语,现在分词surrounding可单独作前置定语。如:① The town's water comes from the surrounding hills. 这个城镇的水是从周围的小山上流下来的。② There are a lot of interesting places to visit in the surrounding area. 周围地区有很多风景胜地可参观。
 【注】surrounding也可作名词用,意为"周围的事物""环境"。如:① I'd like to bring up my child in healthy surroundings. 我想在健康的环境中养育我的孩子。② She grew up in comfortable surroundings. 她在舒适的环境中长大。
20. Living with a mental disability is perhaps the most difficult challenge a human being can face in life. 同残疾人生活在一起也许是人们所能面临的最困难的挑战。(p. 55 Integrating skills 第二段第1 - 2行)
 ▲ face vt. / vi."面向""朝"此时可作及物动词,也可作不及物动词 ① She turned to face the newcomer and introduced herself. 她转身面向新来者作了自我介绍。② The building faces the street. 那建筑物面对着街道。③ -- How does that house face? -- It faces to the east. "那座房子朝哪边?""朝东边。" ④ Manufacturing industry face a grim future if the government pursues its present policies.如果政府继续推行现行政策,制造工业将面临严酷的未来。⑤ He couldn't face his boss after making such a fool of himself at the meeting. 他做出这样的丑事后,不敢面对自己的老板。
 face常用短语: face a person down 以势压人; face up to 勇敢地对付; be faced with 面临、面对; face out 大胆地,坚持到底; face to face 面对面;相对; in a person's face 当着某人的面; in the face of 面对,不顾; make / pull a face 扮鬼脸; set / put one's face against 强烈反对、抵制; take on a new face 面貌一新; turn one's face away 把脸转过去; face the music 面对失败、接受批评
 拓展:face 还可意为"面对/面临(问题、挫折、困难等)"
21. The disability makes everyday life difficult and society often fails to treat the mentally disabled with dignity and respect. 残疾使日常生活困难,社会也经常不能给智力障碍者以尊重和尊严。(p. 55 Integrating skills 第二段第2行)
 ▲注意everyday和every day在用法上的不同,前者是形容词,作前置定语,后者作状语修饰动词。如:① It is a common everyday expression. 这是一个普通的日常用语。② Then she changed into her everyday clothes.然后她换上了日常的衣服。③ The book is written in simple everyday English. 这本书是用简单的日常用语写的。④ She came to see us every day. 她每天都来看我们。⑤ Every day you said to yourself, "I will learn my lesson tomorrow." Now you see what has happened. 每天你总对自己说"我明天学功课。"现在你看发生什么了。
 ▲ fail表示"没能做到某事"可用fail to do sth. 也可以说fail in doing sth.。如: ①He rang the number again, but failed to get a connection. 他又拔了那个号,仍然没能接通。② I failed to see him. He was out. 我没见到他,他出去了。③ He failed to pass the examination though carelessness. 由于粗心,他考试没有及格。④ I failed in persuading him. 我没能说服他。⑤ He always fails to lock the door when he leaves. 他离开时总是忘记锁门。
 【注意】fail sb. 有"使某人失望"之意。如:① His friends failed him when he most needed them. 他的朋友们在他最需要他们的时候使他失望了。② She reached for a chair and sat down suddenly, as if her legs had failed her.她伸手抓过一把椅子,突然坐了下来,好像她的腿支持不住了似的。③ She was so upset that words failed her.她心烦意乱得说不出话来。④ He would have succeeded if his courage hadn't failed him. 如果他当时没有失去勇气,他就成功了。
 ▲ dignity
 (1) n. 高尚的品质;尊严;尊贵,真正的价值 Only a free man has human dignity. 只有真正自由的人才有人的尊严。
 (2) n. 庄严的举止,端正的仪态 She kept her dignity despite the hissing. 尽管嘘声四起,她依旧泰然自若。
 (3) be beneath one's dignity 有失身份。Some husbands still think it beneath their dignity to do the shopping. 有些丈夫到现在仍旧认为让他们去买东西是件有失面子的事。
 (4) stand on one's dignity 保持尊严;自命不凡 She doesn't stand on her dignity and treat the rest of us as servants. 她没有摆架子把我们当仆人看待。
 联系:dignity v. 使......显得尊贵;给......增光dignified adj. 高雅的,高贵的dignitary n. 显要人物,权贵
22. For a long time, mental disability was considered shameful and the mentally disabled received little treat- ment or encouragement. 而社会往往又不能给残疾人以尊严和尊敬。(p. 55 Integrating skills 第二段第4行)
▲ consider
 (1) 考虑 consider + n. ① I sat down by the fire to consider my position. 我坐在火堆旁考虑我的处境。② That's what we have to consider now. 那是我们现在所要考虑的问题。
 注意:consider不接不定式作宾语但可接特殊疑问词加不定式的结构。① You have to consider what to do next. 你必须考虑下一步干什么。② Have you considered how to get there? 你考虑好如何到那儿了吗?
 注意:跟动名词,不跟动名词的复合结构。① I considered going to see him myself. 我想亲自去看他。②跟介词或不加任何成分 ③ You must consider well over the matter. 在这件事上,你必须考虑周全。④ Let me consider. 让我想想。
 (2) 认为,以为
 * 跟从句 We consider that you are not to blame. 我们认为你不应受责备。
 * 跟名词的复合结构 ① I don't consider him a good friend. 我不认为他是我的好友。② We consider Chairman Mao a great man. 我们认为毛主席是伟人。
 * 跟形容词的复合结构 ①They considered themselves superior to others. 他们自以为自己比别人优秀。②I con- sider what he said unimportant. 我认为他说的不重要。
 * 跟不定式的复合结构(主要接to be的形式,也可用其他形式) ① You surely can't consider him to be a selfish man. 你当然不认为他是个自私的人。② I consider him to have acted disgracefully. 我认为他表演得并不优雅。
 联想:considerable adj. 相当多的,相当大的
    considerate adj. 体贴的、体谅的、考虑周到的
    consideration 考虑;体贴、关心;要考虑的事
 ▲ shameful
 辨析:ashamed与shameful
 ashamed 指人(感到)惭愧的,羞耻的;
 shameful 指(行为等)可耻的,不道德的。例如: He is ashamed of his shameful conduct. 他为自己可耻的行为感到羞愧。
 联想:shame n. 羞耻、羞愧;可耻的人(或物);vt. 使......受羞辱,使丢脸
 ashamed adj. (感到)害臊的,羞耻的
 shameless adj. 无耻的,不要脸的
 shamefully adv. 可耻地 shamefulness n. 耻辱
 拓展:put sb. / sth. to shame 使......蒙羞,使没面子; shame sb. into / out of doing sth. 使某人感到羞愧而做/不做某事; be ashamed to do sth. 因羞愧而勉强做某事; 以做某事为耻辱; be ashamed of 对......感到羞愧; be ashamed that... 对......感到羞愧
23. By preparing for and participating in the Special Olympics,... 通过筹备和参加特奥会... (p. 55 Integrating skills 第三段第1行)
* 动词participate的用法
 ▲ participate意为"参加""参与",与介词in连用相当于take part in。如:① Everyone in the class is expected to participate in the discussion. 希望班上每个人都参加到讨论中来。② He refused to participate in the sports meet.
他拒绝参加运动会。③ Terry can't participate in the match because he has hurt his foot. 特里不能参加比赛,因为他扭伤了脚。
 ▲ participate可作"分享""分担"解,而take part in无此解。如:participate in one's suffering 分担某人的痛苦participate in the profits 分享利润
24. One thousand participants from Canada and the United States competed in three events. 来自加拿大和美国的一千多名参加者在三项比赛中进行了角逐。(p. 55 Integrating skills 第三段 第6 - 7 行)
* 动词compete的用法
 ▲ compete意思是"竞争""比赛""争夺",表示与谁竞争、比赛,介词用with或against;表示竞争的目的,即想要得到什么,用介词for,即compete with / against sb. for sth.。如:① He competed with a man from California for the post. 他与一个从加里福尼亚来的人争夺这个职位。② Fifty students competed with one another for the scholarship. 五十名学生相互竞争以取得这项奖学金。③ The young golfer often competes against famous players, but so far he has always been beaten. 那个年轻高尔夫球手常与名手较量,但到目前为止还没有赢过。④ The banks have long competed with each other.
银行间早就开始了竞争。⑤ The American economy and its ability to compete abroad is slowing down.美国经济增速放缓,对外竞争力下降。⑥ The firm is too small to compete with large international companies. 这家公司太小了,竞争不过国际性大公司。⑦ Both girls are always competing for their father's attention. 两个姑娘总是竞相争取父亲的注意。
25. Interest in the Special Olympics has spread across the world and cities are now competing for the honour to host the event. 如今一些城市都在争取特奥会的举办权,并以此为荣。(p.55 Reading 最后一段 倒数第5 - 3行) ▲honour
 (1) n.荣誉、光荣;(高尚)人格;尊敬(多作不可数名词) ① They fight for the honour of the country. 他们为国家荣誉而战。② He is a man of honour. 他是一个人格高尚的人。③ We must show honour to our parents. 我们应尊敬父母。
 注意:也可用作可数名词,使人感到荣幸的人或事(多用单数);代表荣誉的东西(奖品、奖章等) (多用复数)。① It's an honour to meet you. 很荣幸见到你。② He graduated with honours. 他以优异的成绩毕业。
 (2) vt. 尊敬,使......感到荣幸 ①Chaplin was honoured for his contribution to the film industry. 卓别林因其对电影业的贡献而受到尊敬。② The president honoured him with his presence. 总统的到场使他感到无比荣幸。③ Will you honour me with a visit? 可否请你光临?
 短语:in honour of 为了纪念; with honours 以优异成绩; have the honour of 有幸......, 荣幸地......; show honour to sb. 尊敬某人
26. Chinese athletes, their friends, parents and the audience will be proud to welcome Special Olympians to China. 中国运动员和他们的朋友,父母以及运动会的观众都将以骄傲的姿态欢迎特奥会在中国的召开。(p.55 Reading 最后一段 倒数第2 - 1行) ▲ welcome
 (1) vt. welcome / greet sb. on one's arrival 用作及物动词,意为"欢迎(人),高兴迎接"。如: ① The Queen welcomed the President as he got off the plane. 总统走下飞机时,女王上前迎接。② The heroes were warmly welcomed by the masses. 英雄们受到了群众的热烈欢迎。③ I shall welcome the coming of warm weather. 我将欢迎温暖天气的来临。
 (2) welcome也可用作形容词,意为"受欢迎的,被愉快接受的"。如: ① You are always welcome at our house.欢迎你随时来我们家。② He didn't make his guests very welcome. 他待客冷淡。③All suggestions will be welcome. 欢迎一切建议。
 (3) welcome也可用作名词,意为"欢迎、款待",为可数名词。如: ① They gave us a warm welcome. 他们热烈欢迎我们。② The president of the college extended a warm welcome to the visiting professor. 院长向来访的教授表示热烈的欢迎。③ You are welcome. (回答对方道谢时的客套话,主要用于美国英语),意为"不用谢,别客气"。如: -- It's just what I wanted. Thank you very much.
这正是我要的东西,非常感谢。-- You're welcome. 不用谢。
注意:welcome是规则动词,其过去式与过去分词是welcomed,welcomed,而不welcome,welcome;"欢迎某人做某事"不能说welcome sb. to do sth. 而说sb. be welcome to do sth. 如: (×)We welcome foreign friends to visit China. (√)Foreign friends are welcome to visit Chins.我们欢迎外国朋友来中国参观。

高二英语Unit18 Inventions知识点总复习教案
Section I 课前准备、听力、口语
1. Never throw away or wash chopsticks again. 千万不要扔掉再洗这些筷子。(p.57 A)
 ▲ throw (threw,thrown)
(1) 投,抛,扔 He threw the ball 20 metres. 他把球投出20米。
(2) 摔倒...... The policeman threw the thief to the ground.警察把小偷摔倒在地面上。
(3) 发射,射 China has throw a satellite into space recent- ly. 中国最近向太空发射了一枚卫星。
 辨析:throw...to sb. 与throw ... at sb.
 throw sth. to sb. 指"把某物扔向某人",其目的在于"传递" (for sb. to catch) 介词to纯粹表示行为的方向,其动机是善意的;throw sth. at sb. 指"把某物打向某人",其目的在于"打" ( = try to hit sb.)。介词at表示动作在于企图攻击的目标,其动机是恶意的。如:He threw the ball at me. (= try to hit me) 他扔球打我。He threw the ball to me. (= for me to catch) 他把球传给了我(= He threw me the ball.)
 辨析:throw与cast
 throw是普通用词,使用频率高,它指用力抛掷这一行为。cast比throw正式,指迅速扔出一重量较轻的物体。经常用作比喻或无意识行为,在某些成语及特殊用语中须用cast,如cast a net "撒网";cast a vote"投票";cast anchor"抛锚"等等。如:Will you move, please? You're casting (throwing) a shadow on my book. 你走开点好吗?你的影子正好投射在我的书上。He quickly threw the ball into the basket. 他迅速地将球投入篮里。The dice is cast. 事已定局。
 拓展:throw oneself into 积极从事; throw away 扔掉; throw about 乱丢;乱扔(东西); throw back 扔回; throw...at... 朝......扔,向......砸去; throw off 匆匆脱掉
throw...to... 把......传给......;把......摔倒; throw out 扔出;逐出; throw aside 扔在一旁; throw up 呕吐
2. Save trees and have a snack at the same time 挽救了树木并且同时成为小吃。(p. 57 A)
 ▲ save (1) vt. 救、挽救 The brave soldier saved a child from a burning house. 那勇敢的战士从着火的房子里救出了一个孩子。Only socialism can save China. 只有社会主义才能救中国。
 辨析:save与rescue: save与rescue两者都有"营救"之意;但save侧重于"保全"之意,而rescue则侧重于"从囚禁中救出"之意。如:In order to save the country, many gentlemen laid down their lives. 许多志士仁人为国捐躯了。They rescued him from prison. 他们营救他出狱。
 (2)节省;储蓄 Don't spend all your money, save some of it for future use. 别把钱全部花光,储蓄一点儿以备将来之用。
3. You will never have to worry about having your bike stolen again. 你再也不必担心自行车会被偷走了。(p.57 D) ▲ worry
 (1) vi."发愁,着急,焦虑" Mother always worried when the girls stayed out late. 女孩们要是很晚还不回家,母亲总是很担心。
 (2) vt."使麻烦;使发愁;使着急" Don't worry her, She is busy. 别去麻烦她,她很忙。 There's only one point that worries me. 只有一点使我发愁。
 (3) n."烦恼"不可数;"使人发愁的事(人);烦心的事"(可数),且常用复数。This worry is enough to drive one mad. 这烦恼足以令人发狂。He has many worries. 他有很多的烦恼的事情。
 辨析: worry与trouble: trouble的含义宽广,事无巨细都可用它,且含有一定的惊慌意味;worry"担心""发愁",它指没有根据的,经常是不必要的忧虑不安的心情。如:
Uneasiness troubled her heart. 她感到心神不定。I'm troubled by the doctor's report. 医生的诊断结果令我焦急。Don't worry,tomorrow will be better. 别担心,明天会更好。We're all worried about you. 我们都在为你担心。
 拓展:worry sb. 使某人烦恼(着急);worry about sb. 为某人而担心;worry through 艰苦进行
4. This new invention will make it possible for people to... 这项新发明将使人们做...成为可能。(p. 58 Useful expressions) ▲ makes it possible...
 (1) 此处it为形式宾语,本身为先行代词,它既可作形式宾语,又可用作形式主语,代替句中的真正主语或宾语,即从句、动名词、不定式等。I think it a pity that he can't swim. 我认为他不能游泳是件令人遗憾的事。It is important for us to master English. 掌握英语对我们来说是重要的。It is no use telling him that. 告诉他那件事是没有用的。
 (2) it作形式宾语时,其前的动词有:think, find, consider, believe, suppose, feel, make等,而if后常跟形容词或名词。He feels it his duty to help others. 他觉得帮助别人是他的职责。We make it clear to the world that we'll never behave like a superpower. 我们向全世界表明我们永远不做超级大国。I consider it a great honour to be present at the meeting. 我觉得能出席这个会议很荣幸。He found it necessary to study the situation in Russia. 他发现研究俄罗斯的形势是必要的。I believe it helpful to use such a dictionary. 我相信使用这样的一本词典是有帮助的。I suppose it possible to finish such a join in three days. 我想三天之内完成这样一件工作是有可能的。
5. Decide which of the inventions you think is the most useful and... 决定你认为哪一种发明是最有用的。(p. 58. Patent Officer) ▲ decide 决定, 决心;使下决心, 使决断;对...起了决定作用;解决, 裁决, 判决
 (1) 跟名词或代词 I've got to decide our whole future. 我得决定我们的整个未来。We must decide that ourselves.这得由我们自己决定。
 (2) 跟不定式(不可跟动名词) They decided to move to Wuchang immediately. 他们决定马上搬到武昌去。He decided to do his homework. 他决定做他的家庭作业。
 (3) 跟疑问词 + 不定式 We must decide what to do with them. 我们必须决定拿他们怎么办。She hasn't decided when to start. 何时动身她还没有决定。She hasn't decided when to start. 何时动身她还没有决定。
 (4) 跟从句 Let's first decide where we should go. 我们先决定到什么地方去。Only you can decide what's best for you. 只有你才能决定什么对你最合适。
 辨析:decide; determine; resolve; make up one's mind 都有"决定"的意思。decide 指"经过询问、研讨和考虑之后, 在几种可能的选择之中作出决定", 如: She decided to leave here on Sunday instead of Monday. 她决定星期日而不是星期一离开这里。determine指"决心作某一件事而不动摇", 如: We have determined to get the work done ahead of schedule. 我们已经决定要提前完成这项工作。resolve指"打定主意做某事或不做某事", 如: I resolve to study English. 我决定学英语。make up one's mind 指"打定主意""下了决心";其主语必须是人,不可是物,而且不可用于被动语态。如: He made up his mind not to stay there any longer. 他决定不再在那里呆下去了。
 拓展:decide for doing sth. 决定做某事; decide in favour of sth. 作出有利......的决定或判决; decide on (upon) 决定,选择(多指从两个或多个可能性中选择); decide between从两者中选择、决定。
 联想:decided adj. 明确的,坚决的;deciding adj. 起决定作用的;decision n. 决定,决心(同义词) determine;make up one's mind
Section II 阅读
6. How do they come up with ideas for new inventions? 他们怎么提出新发明的想法的? (p. 59. Pre-Reading 3) / (p. 59 Reading 第一段第二行) 比较:解释3
▲ come up with意为"提出""想出"。如:① The teacher asked a difficult question,but finally Tom came up with a good answer. 老师提出了一个难题,但汤姆最后想出了一个好答案。② The magazine recently came up with some advice on smoking. 那本杂志最近就吸烟问题提出了一些忠告。③ I hope you can come up with a better plan than this. 我希望你能想出一个比这个更好些的计划来。④ Scientists will have to come up with new methods of increasing the world's food supply.科学家们必须找出增加全世界食品供应的新方法。⑤ You have no choice but to come up with the £18000.你别无选择,必须拿出那一万八千英镑来。
【注】come up 也有"被提出来"之意,但主语一般是表示问题、建议、计划等的名词。如:① The program came up for final decision.这一计划被提出来以便作最后决定。 ② These problems will come up for discussion at the meeting. 这些问题会在会议中提出来讨论。③ We solved problems as soon as they came up. 问题一出现我们就解决。
【注】 come up with还有"赶上"之意。如:① Let's hurry up so that we may come up with them.咱们快些走,好赶上他们。② We shall have to work hard to come up with the other team.我们得努力干才能赶上另一队的进度。③ I came up with her as she was rounding the corner. 她在拐弯时,我追上了她。
【注】come up with可引申为"拿出""提供(一笔钱)"之意。如:① The rich man came up with a large sun of money to those poor students who can't afford their tuition.那个有钱人拿出一大笔钱来给那些因贫困而交不起学费的学生。
7. Throughout history, great thinkers have used their creativity and imagination to change the world. 纵观历史,为大的思想家们用他们的创造力和想象力改变了世界 (p. 59 Reading 第一段 第一行) ▲ throughout
 (1) prep. 遍及We have friends throughout the world. 我们的朋友遍天下。Schools were opened throughout the country. 全国中小学都开学了。
 (2) prep. 在整个(一段时期) Throughout the summer and autumn he continued to go to the office work. 整个夏秋季节他都连续在办公室上班。
 (3) adv. 整个地,全部地The timber was rotten throughout.这块木料已经整个儿地腐烂了。
 (4) adv. 一直地,从头到尾Prices remain stable throughout. 物价始终保持稳定。The house is painted throughout. 这所房子全部油漆一新。
8. How do they come up with ideas for new inventions? 他们那些新发明的思想是怎么来的呢? (p. 59 Reading 第一段第二行) ▲ come up with
 (1) 赶上 We shall have to work hard to come up with them. 我们要努力工作,赶上他们。
 (2) 提出,提供 I hope you can come up with a better plan than this. 我希望你们能提出比这个更好的计划。
 拓展:come up 走近,长出; come up against 遭到......; come up to 达到,符合; come out with 发表,出版
9. Thinkers who have changed the world do not seem to have much in common. 改变了世界的思想家们似乎并没有很多共同之处。(p. 59. 第一段 第三行)
▲ in common意为"共用""共有""共同",后接介词with时,意为"和...一样"。如: ① The swimming pool is used in common by all the children in the town. 这个游泳池供镇上的孩子共同使用。② They have nothing in common with one another. 他们相互之间没有共同点。③ In common with many people, he prefers classic music to pop.和很多人一样,他喜欢古典音乐,不喜欢流行音乐。④He believed,in common with the majority, that it was tree.他与大多数人一样,认为这是真的。⑤ In common with most Italian lakes, access to the shores of Orta is restr- icted. 和大多数的意大利湖一样,进入奥塔湖滨受到限制。⑥ To my surprise, I found I had a lot in common with this stranger.令我惊讶的是,我发现我与那陌生人有很多相似之处。⑦ He had little in common with his little sister.他与他的小妹妹没有多少共同之处。⑧ Their methods have a lot in common.他们的方法有很多相似之处。
【注】 注意out of the common意思是"异乎寻常的" "不平常的"。如:It is something out of the common. 这是异乎寻常的东西。
10. It seems that creative thinking,..., is a matter of habits. 人们似乎觉得创造性是关于习惯的问题。(p. 59 Reading 第一段倒数第二行) 比较:U.17 p.51 The best way to help is often simply a matter of opening doors and offering guidance.帮助残疾人的最好办法就是开门提供引导的问题。 ▲ a matter of (关于)......的问题
 (1) a matter of......的问题,matter意为"事情""问题"。This is a matter of principle. 这是一个原则性问题。It's not a matter of laughing. 这可不是开玩笑的事情。
 (2) the matter 麻烦事What's the matter with you? Why are you crying? 发生了什么事,干吗哭呢?
 拓展:a matter of opinion 看法不同的问题;a matter of life and death 生死攸关的事情;as a matter of fact 事实上,其实;no matter what (how,when,where,who...);无论什么 (怎样,何时,哪里,谁......);for that matter (for the matter of that) 就此而言;What's the matter with...? ......怎么了? / ......出了什么毛病?;in the matter of... 就......而论; It doesn't matter. 没关系
11. Knowledge and learning are important if we want to be successful,... 假如我们想要成功,知识和学习都是很重要的... (p. 59 Reading 第二段第一行) ▲ knowledge
 (1) n. 知识,认识Knowledge is power,知识就是力量。
 (2) n. 知道,了解He has no knowledge of life in the small village. 他对那个小村子的生活不了解。She has a good knowledge of London. 她对伦敦十分熟悉。I have no knowledge of his arrival. 我不知道他来了。
 辨析:knowledge与learning
 knowledge泛指一个人通过观察、调查、学习研究而获得的事实或真知灼见,它不仅包含通过正规教育获得的知识,而且包括日常生活中的阅历。
 learning常指"通过长期的、细致的学习而获得系统的知识,这种知识往往不是肤浅的,而广博的、深奥的"。该词也可指全部学识和智慧的总和,或者科学知识,但更多用于语言、文学、历史、法律等人文学科。This dusty knowledge needs brushing up after the passage of years. 多年以后,这种原先学过的知识需温习一下。They have no direct knowledge of conditions in the East. 他们对东方的情况缺乏直接了解。He is a man of learning. 他是个学问渊博的人。
12. ... what we have learnt may also limit our thinking. 我们已经学到手的东西也可能限制我们的思维。(p. 59 Reading 第二段第二行) ▲ limit
 (1) vt. 限制We must limit our spending. 我们必须限制开销。She limited her conversation to ten minutes. 她将说 话时间限制为10分钟。
 (2) n. 限制、限度、极限 She has reached the limit of her patience. 她的耐性已经达到了极限。There is a limit to one's life, but no limit to serving the people. 人的生命是有限的,但为人民服务是无限的。
拓展:to the limit 到顶点;limited company 有限公司;a limited number of... 有限的几个;be limited in... 在......方面受限;within limits 在一定范围内;without limit 无限地
 联想:limit vt.限制limited adj. 有限的;limitation n. 限制,局限性; limitless 无限制的
13. Inventors often rephrase a problem to allow for creative solutions and... 发明家常常会换一种说法来表述一个问题... (p. 59 Reading 第二段第三行)
 *▲ allow for 顾及,考虑到,体谅:We must allow for his youth. 我们必须体谅他年轻。He allowed for her great age and was very patient. 他考虑到她年纪大因而很耐心。
拓展:allow of 允许......;allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事:Such conduct allows of no excuse. 这种行为不得宽怒。They allowed me to enter. 他们准许我进入。
 辨析: allow与allow for
▲ allow意为"允许""准许"。如:① Smoking is not allowed in public places. 公共场所不允许抽烟。② The government servants aren't allowed to accept rewards.公务员不得接受酬谢。③ The children ale too young to be allowed out at night. 孩子们太小,夜间不能让他们出去。
▲ allow for意思是"估计到""把......考虑在内"。如:① When he made the plan, he failed to allow for the unexpected.他作计划时没有把意外情况考虑进去。② He missed the target because the wind hadn't been allowed for. 因为没有考虑到风的影响,他没有击中目标。③ You can't make it in an hour, you must allow for traffic delays.你一个小时到不了,你必须考虑到在路上会遇到耽搁。④ We must allow for his lack of experience.我们必须考虑到他缺乏经验这一点。⑤ Allowing for exceptions, the rule may stand. 在允许有例外的情况下,这条规则还是可以成立的。)
14. If we look only for the correct answer and reject ideas that do not provide a complete answer, we may get stuck. 如果我们只找正确答案,拒绝那些不能给我们完整答案的想法,那么我们就可能被框住。(p. 59 Reading 第二段第四行) ▲ reject
 (1) vt. 拒绝;抵制;指不肯承认,采用、相信或服从,不肯接受。They had rejected our request contemptuously. 他们轻蔑地拒绝了我们的请求。Several publishers rejected the manuscript. 几家出版商都拒绝了这份手稿。
 (2) vt. 抛弃;丢掉;剔除 Under the guidance of the Party he has rejected the idealist view of history in favour of the materialist. 在党的教导下,他已经抛弃唯心主义历史观,接受了唯物主义历史观。
 辨析:refuse与reject:两者都有"拒绝"之意。
 refuse不仅可用来拒绝别人的请求和要求,而且还可用于拒绝别人的邀请或帮助;其后能跟不定式;
 reject不能用于拒绝别人的邀请或帮助,其后不能跟不定式。He refused the invitation from John. 他拒绝了约翰的邀请。He refused to believe what I said. 他拒绝相信我说的话。
 ▲ provide
 (1) vt.提供;装备The government provided them with money and clothes. 政府向他们提供金钱和衣服。The country provides free medical service to college students. 国家为大学生提供了公费医疗。You must provide yourselves. 你们必须自备必需品。
 (2) vi. provide for 提供生计;作准备 provide against预防 Who provides for her? 谁为她提供生活费? He provided for the entertainment of his guests. 他为招待客人作好了准备。They had to provide against a shortage of water. 他们不得不作好缺水的准备。They provided against the attack. 他们做好准备以防受攻击。
 辨析:afford,provide与supply: 三个词都有"提供""供给"之意。但在用法上有区别:
 afford 作"向某人提供某物"解时,它的句型是afford sb. sth. (sth.常为抽象名词) Travel affords us pleasure. 旅游会给我们带来快乐。He afforded me an opportunity. 他给我提供了一次机会。
 provide与supply用法相似,可以换用,某句型为:provide (supply) sb. with sth.; provide (supply) sth. to (for) sb.; The sun provides (supplies) light and heat for us. = The sun provides (supplies)us with light and heat. 太阳为我们提供光和热。
 ▲ stuck
get stuck意思是"被困住""被卡住""处于困境",此处get是连系动词,也可以用be等其他的连系动词。如:① The bus was stuck in the mud.公共汽车陷在泥里了。② The shuttle often got stuck, causing a lot of broken ends.梭子常常卡住,造成大量断头。③ What shall we do? We seem to be stuck.怎么办?我们似乎干不下去了。④ Have you got stuck over your maths problems? 你的数学题做不下去了吗? ⑤ I'm stuck now, there is no more material for the work. 我无法进行下去了,这工作缺少资料。⑥ I Was stuck there for a week by the bad weather.由于天气不好,我在那里待了一个星期。
15. Creative thinking is a conscious effort to break away from old thought patterns in order to explore new possi- bilities. 创造性思维是一种有意识的努力,即为了探索新的可能性而摆脱旧的思维模式。 (p.59第二段倒数第一行)
▲ effort作"努力"解释时,后常跟不定式,如本句即是,请看下列例句。① His effort to reform her at last succeeded.他要改造她的努力终于成功了。② Despite all my efforts to improve his life-style, he's still smoking twenty cigarettes a day. 尽管我尽力改变他的生活方式,但他还是一天吸二十支香烟。③ He's jogging round the park every morning in an effort to get fit for the football season. 他为了锻炼身体迎接足球赛季的到来,每天早晨都绕着公园慢跑。
【注】effort可作"艰难的事"解释,为可数名词。如:It's such an effort to get up on these dark winter mornings.冬季早晨到处黑沉沉的,起床真艰难呀!
▲ break away from 意为"脱离""摆脱""断绝来往"。如:① Fortunately he broke away from that lawless group years ago.幸好几年前他就脱离了那个不法集团。② The criminal tried to break away from the policeman.罪犯试图从警察手里逃跑。③ Smith has broken away from the Labour Party. 史密斯已脱离工党。
 【注】break away from亦可作"改掉""破除"解。如:① You should break away from such bad habits. 你应该改掉这些坏习惯。② Modem music has broken away from the 18th century rules. 现代音乐不再遵守十八世纪的条条框框。③ Modern art has broken away from old traditions. 现代美术已摆脱了旧的传统。④ The child broke away from all disciplines. 这孩子一点也不守规矩。
16. Good solutions and new ideas are often the result of change in perception. 好的解决方法和新的思路常常是改变一种观念的结果。(p.59第三段 第一行)
 ▲ solution意为"解决(办法)""解答(释)",通常后接介词to。如:① There are no simple solutions to the problem of overpopulations. 对于人口过多的问题,没有简单的解决办法。② We are looking for a solution to our financial difficulties. 我们正在寻找解决财政困难的方法。
17. By looking at a problem in as many ways as possible, creative thinkers can find solutions that would other- wise remain invisible. 通过尽可能多的角度来看待一个问题,富有创造力的思考者可以发现其他情况下可能觉察不了的答案。(p.59第三段 第二行)
▲让我们先分析一下句子的结构,本句的主语是creative thinkers。谓语动词是can find,宾语solutions后带了一个定语从句。句首的 by短语是方式状语。
▲ otherwise在本句中是副词,意为"要不然""否则""在另外的情况下"。如:① He was tired but otherwise in good health.他很疲惫,但除此之外,健康状况良好。②The rent is high,but otherwise the house is satisfactory. 租金昂贵,但在其他方面这房子还令人满意。③ He has a squint,but is otherwise a handsome fellow. 他有点斜视,但除此之外,倒是个英俊的小伙子。
【注】 otherwise也可作"不同地...用别的方法"解。如: ④ She says it's true,but we think otherwise. 她说这是真的,但我们却认为并非如此。⑤ I hate him but I pretend other- wise. 我恨他,但是我假装不恨。⑥ I have never observed him do otherwise.我从未看到过他不是这样做的。
【注】 otherwise可用作连词,意为"否则""要不然",相当于or。如: ① Hurry up, otherwise you'll be late. 快点,不然你要迟到了。② Do what you have been told otherwise you'll be punished.照吩咐的去做,否则你将受罚。③ I'm lucky that I'm interested in school work, otherwise I'd go mad.很幸运我对学校里的功课感兴趣,不然我要疯掉的。
 【注】 otherwise可作形容词。如:①The fact is other- wise.真相并非如此。② Their political enemies were also their otherwise friends. 他们的政敌在其他方面也正是他们的朋友。
▲ remain为连系动词,意为"处于(某种状态)"。后接形容词性的词作表语。① How can we remain silent on this question? 对这个问题我们怎么能保持沉默呢? ② The boundary questions still remain unsettled. 边界问题仍然没有解决。③ She remained sitting when they came in.他们进来时,她仍然坐着。
【注】remain也可以接名词、代词、介词短语作表语。如:① This still remains a serious problem. 这仍然是一个严重的问题。② It remains below 13℃ for about five months of the year. 一年约有五个月那里温度保持在13摄氏度以下。
18. ... the process includes a series of different attempts and several false starts. 这个过程涉及到一系列不同尝试和一些错误的开端。 (p. 59 Reading 第三段第三行)
 ▲ attempt的一些用法
(1) vt. 试图做,试图夺取(后跟名词,不定式,动名词等)The enemy attempted an attack by night. 敌人准备趁夜色偷袭。He attempted the examination but failed. 他试图通过考试,但没有成功。The enemy attempted to break through our lines. 敌人企图冲破我们的防线。I attempted walking until I fell over.我挣扎着走路,直到摔倒才停止。
 (2) n. 尝试 (常为可数名词) We failed in our attempt to climb the mountain. 我们试图爬上山去,但失败了。The two superpowers both collude and struggle with each other in a vain attempt to redivide the world. 这两个超级大国又勾结,又争夺,妄图重新瓜分世界。
 拓展:make an attempt to do sth. 试图做某事;make an attempt at doing sth. 试图做某事;make an attempt on... 企图夺取......;
 联想:attempt vt. & n. 尝试;attemptable adj.可以尝试的
19. Every new thought or idea has to be connected to what we already know. 每一个新思想或新思路都会与我们已有的知识联系起来。(p.59第四段 第一行)
 ▲ connect
connect to意思是"与......相连接(有关)",其后的介词既可用to,也可以用with。如:① The police didn't connect him with the murder.警方没有把他和凶杀案连在一起。② He is connected with the Whites by marriage.他与怀特家是姻亲。③ A search of Brady's house found nothing that could connect them with the robberies.对布拉迪的房子的搜查没有找到任何他与抢劫有关的内容。④ We usually connect spring with sunshine and flowers.我们通常把春天和阳光及鲜花联系在一起。
20. Great thinkers are aware of this and ... 伟大的思想家了解到了这一点... (p. 59 Reading 第四段第三行)
 ▲ be aware of (意识到;知道)
 (1) adj. 意识到的,知道 Are you aware of the difficulty?你知道那项困难吗?
 (2) 跟从句时,省去of He was not aware that he was in danger. 他没有觉察到自己处境危险。She was not aware how much her husband earned.她不知道她丈夫挣多少钱。
 (3) aware为表语形容词,前面不能用very修饰,习惯用well,quite等词。I am quite (well) aware how you must feel.我很能体会你会有什么样的感受。
 拓展:be tired of 厌烦......;be afraid of... 害怕......;be short of... 缺少......;be sure of... 对......有把握;be full of... 充满的......;be proud of... 以......为自豪
 ▲ aware
aware意为"意识到""觉察到",是形容词,多用作表语,后接介词of,of后通常接名词、代词、动名词或名词性从句,接名词性从句应用疑问词引导,这时of可省去。① Are you aware of the problems involved? 你有没有意识到这里存在的问题? ② He was not aware of her presence till she spoke to him.直到她对他说话,他才意识到她的存在。③ He become aware of Jane's coming to- wards him.他觉察到简向他走来。④ We were quite aware (of) how you would respond to our terms.我们十分清楚你能对我们提出的条件作怎样的反应。⑤ I Was not aware (of) how dangerous it was.我不知道这有多危险。
【注】aware后可接that引导的从句,这时不可再用of。如: ① I'm well aware that this is not the perfect solution. 我非常清楚这不是完美的解决办法。② He was painfully aware that the deadline had passed. 他痛苦地意识到限期已过。③ You must be aware that what you ale doing is illegal.你必须明白你做的事是非法的。
【注】be aware后也可以直接跟连接副词how引起的从句。如:① I'm quite aware how you must feel.我完全明白你会有什么感觉。② I'm too sleepy to be aware how cold it was. 我太困了,没意识到天有多冷。)
21. They all knew that for each new invention that works, there are at least ten that don't. 他们都知道,每有一个成功的发明就至少有十个是不成功的。 (p.60第二段第四行)
▲ 此处介词for表示对比或比例。常与each,every或数词连用。意思是"每......就""与......成比例"。如:① For every enemy, he has fifty friends.他每有一个敌人就有五十个朋友。② Plant three trees for every one that is cut down.每砍一棵树就要种三棵树。③ The prisoners of war were exchanged man for man.一对一地交换了战俘。④ Let's translate the sentence word for word.让我们逐字翻译这个句子。
Section III 词汇语法、综合技能
22. Anywhere we go, we Pan hear the ringing of a cell- phone.我们无论到哪里,都能听到手机的铃声。(p.62第一段第二行)
▲ anywhere是副词,意为"无论何地",此处用来引导地点状语从句,相当于一个连词,意思和wherever或no matter where相近。① I'll take you anywhere you like.我将带你到你喜欢的任何地方。② Anywhere you go, it is all the same.无论你到什么地方都一样。③ You can camp anywhere you like these days.如今你可以喜欢在哪儿宿营就在哪儿宿营。④ Anywhere I go, I find the same thing.不管我走到哪里,我都发现同样的情况。
 【注】在英语中,副词起到连词的作用,用来引导状语从句很常见。如:directly,instantly,immediately等。如:① I came immediately you called. 你一来电话我就来了。② Directly he said those words, there was a dead silence.他刚说完这些话,大家就立刻沉默下来。③ The machine will start instantly you press the button.你一按电钮,机器就会开动。④ I knew something was wrong immediately I arrived. 我一到就知道出事了。⑤ We came directly we got your telephone.我们一接到你的电话就来了。⑥ Instantly I saw him, I knew he was the man the police were looking for.我一看见他就知道他正是警察在寻找的男子。
【注】the moment,the minute,the instant和the second等名词也可以这样用。如:① Telephone me the instant you get the results.你一得到结果就给我打电话。② I recognized her the minute I saw her. 我一看见她就把她认出来了。③ He liked the painting the instant he saw it.他一看见这幅画,就喜欢上它了。④ The moment I came into the room, I found the old man lying on the floor, panting. 我一进屋子,就发现那老人躺在地上,气喘吁吁的。
23. A computer's "memory" is similar to human memory in some ways, but... 电脑的记忆在某些方面和人脑的记忆是相似的...(p.63第二段第六行)
 ▲ similar
 (1) adj. 相似的(常作表语和主语) The products of these two factories are similar. 这两家工厂的产品很相似。We have similar opinions. 我们都有类似的意见。
 (2) 用法上,be similar后接介词to,不跟with Your situation is similar to mine.你的处境与我的相似。
 (【注】similar的反义词是different,其后跟介词from。如:① This is a different girl from the one he used to go out with.这个姑娘不是他过去交往的那个姑娘。② I couldn't help being different from when I left school.我与当年离开校园时的我判若两人,这是不可避免的。
 【注】请注意similar与same的区别,前者表示"大致相同""十分相像",而后者则意为"完全一样""没有变化"。如:① We've still got the same problem as we had before.我们现在和过去一样存在同一个问题。② The two cars ate similar in appearance, but the new one is more brightly coloured. 这两部车看起来差不多,但那部新的颜色更亮些。
【注】请注意similar与familiar的差异,后者意为"熟悉的"。当主语是物时,familiar后也接介词to。如:① Your name is very familiar to me.你的名字我很熟悉。② French is familiar to him as English. 他对法语就像英语一样熟悉。③ These folk songs are familiar to the local people. 这些民歌是当地人很熟悉。
  【注】当人作主语时,即表示某人对某物熟悉时,familiar后接介词with。如:① I'm of course familiar with his works.我当然对他的作品很熟悉的。② She has become familiar with the house. 她对这房子得很熟悉了)
 辨析:similar,like与alike
 similar指有明显的共同性质但不完全一致或同一。
 like指事物在外貌、性质或特征上非常相似以致区别不开,但并非同一。
 alike意义同like,但只能作表语。
A similar mistake occurs at the end of the paragraph. 这一段末尾有一个类似的错误。Like thinking produces like ideas. 相似的思维产生相似的主张。He and his brother are very alike. 他们兄弟俩太相似了。
联想:(派) similar adj. 类似的 similarly adv. 类似地 similarity n. 类似
24. After all, what makes a new invention such a wonderful thing is that it allows us to do sth. we could not do before. 不管怎样,使一项新发明成为如此奇妙的事情就在于他可以让我们做以前不能做的事情。(p.63第二段倒数第二行)
 ▲ after all 毕竟。归根到底
 (1) 毕竟,到底 He is a good man after all. 毕竟他是一个好人。
 (2) 在句首时,常译为"别忘了"。After all, my son's birthday is in two weeks' time. 别忘了,我儿子的生日还有两周时间。
 拓展:above all 尤其是;all in all 完全,整个地;and all 等等; at all 全然,根本;first of all 首先 in all总计;not at all 一点也不
 辨析:after all,at all 与 in all
after all意思是"终究""毕竟"。如:① After all, I've nothing to be ashamed of. 说到底,我没有什么可羞愧的。 ② So you see I was right after all. 因此你知道最后还是我对。③ What harm does it do after all? 它到底有什么害处? ④ After all, he's only six years old. 他毕竟才六岁。
 【注】注意: after all与at all和in all的区别。
 ① at all用在否定句中,以加强否定语气,表示"一点儿也不""完全没有"。如:① It will do you no harm at all. 这对你完全没有害处。② I'm not interested in it at all. 我对这毫无兴趣。
 ② at all可用于疑问句、条件句中起强调作用,意为"真的""竟然""确实"等。如:① Are you going to do it at all?你真的准备这样做吗? ② If you want to discuss with me at all, give me a ring. 如果你确实想同我商量,可以打个电话给我。
③ in all用来表示"总计"。如:① There are four questions in all. 总共有四个问题。② How much is it in all? 总共多少钱?)
25. Now that we are developing new technology at such a high pace,... 既然我们如此高速地发展着新技术... (p.63第三段第二行)
 ▲ now that既然,由于 表示原因 Now that you are grown-up, you must stop this childish behavior. 既然你已长大,你必须停止这种幼稚的行为。Now that he is well again, he can go on with his English study. 既然恢复了健康,他就可以继续学习英语。
 【注】口语中now that中的that可省略。
拓展:now and then 时而,不时;from now on 从现在起;just now 刚才;now then (位于句首,表警告、抗议或引起注意) 喂;up to now 直到现在
联想:now n. 现在past n. 过去future n. 未来 present n. 目前
 辨析:now that 与 once 引导的状语从句
now that意为"既然""由于";once意为"一旦",它们在句中起连词作用,引导时间状语从句。如: ① Now that you mention it, I do remember. 你一提,我就想起来了。② Now that we have decorated the house, we can move in. 既然房子已装修好,我们就可以搬进去了。③ Once over the pass, you will see the town before you.一过关口,你就会看到那座城市呈现在你面前。 ④ I'll tell him once I see him. 我一看见他就告诉他。⑤ Now that the rain has stopped, we call leave. 雨既然停了,我们就可以走了。⑥ Now that you are settled, why don't you take up some serious study? 既然你已经安顿下来,为什么你不开始正式地学些东西呢? ⑦ Once she arrives, we can start. 她一到我们就可以动身了。⑧ Once you show any fear, he will attack you.你一表现出恐惧,他就要攻击你。
【注】now that中的that可省略。
高二英语Unit19 The Merchant of Venice知识点总复习教案
Section I 课前准备、听力、口语
1. Deny your father, and refuse your name... 否认你的父亲,拒绝你的名字。(p.65 Warming up )
 ▲ deny (denied,denying)
 (1) vt. 否认,不承认Can you deny the truth of his statement? 你能否认他的声明的真实性吗? He denied telling me/that he had told me. 他否认告诉过我。
 注意:deny后跟动名词或跟宾语从句作宾语。
 (2) vt. 不给;不准 I was denied the chance of going to college. 不给我上大学的机会。
 (3) vt. (正式)抛弃;背弃He has denied his country and his principles! 他背弃了他的国家和他的原则1
 ▲ refuse (refused,refusing)
 (1) vt. 拒绝;不接受;不肯He asked her to marry him, but she refused (to marry him). 他向她求婚,但是她拒绝了。She refused his offer. 她不接受他的求婚。
 (2) refuse还可跟动词不定式构成refuse +to do;也可用于被动结构。She refused to go home. 她不回家。They were refused admittance. 他们被拒绝入内。
 (3) vi. 拒绝 He can't refuse if you ask politely. 你如果礼貌地请求,他是不会拒绝的。
 注意:refuse只接不定式,不接动名词,不接不定式的复合宾语结构,也不接宾语从句,如:不说,He refused me to go (going) there. 而应说:He didn't allow me to go there 或 He refused to let me go. 他不让我去那儿。
 辨析:refuse与reject
 refuse和reject都有"拒绝"的意思,有时可以通用,有时用法又不同。refuse强调坚定地拒绝,后可接动词不定式。reject强调当前拒绝对方的请求、提议的情况,一般后面不接动词不定式。如:He refused to speak at the meeting. 他拒绝在会上发言。He rejected my request. 他当面拒绝了我的要求。
Section II 阅读
2. As far as I know... 据我所知... (p. 67 Useful expressions) as far as的用法和意思
 ▲ as far as或so far as,此处意为"据""就...'尽",常与动词know,see等词连用。如: ① As far as they know, the room is empty. 据他们所知,房间是空的。② So far as I can judge, she is quite efficient. 据我判断,她的工作效率是相当高的。③ There aye no mistakes as far as I can see. 在我看来没什么错误。④ So far as I know, their work is far from satisfactory. 据我所知,他们的工作并不令人满意。
【注】类似的用法还有:as far as sb. / sth. is concerned,意思是"就某人 /某事而言""对某人/某事来说"。如:① As far as I am concerned, it's all nonsense.在我看来,这全是一派胡言。② This has been a difficult period as far as the country's economy is concerned. 就我国经济而言,最近是其困难时期。
 【注】也可以用as far as sth. goes。如:① so far as content goes, it is all right.就内容而言,这还不错。② It's a perfectly good law as far as it goes, but it doesn't deal with the real problems.该法就其本身而言非常不错,但是它未解决实际问题。
 【注】 as far as的原意是"到达""一直到"。如:① The flood waters came as far as the roof. 洪水一直漫到屋顶。② They didn't go as far as we. 他们走得不如我们远。
3. The way I would go about it... 我要做这件事的方法... (p. 67 Useful expressions) ▲ go about的用法
(1) go about此处意为"从事于......" "进行......"。如:① You are not going about it the right way. 你的做法不对。② Peter has no idea how to go about finding a better job.彼得不知道怎样才能找到更好的工作。③ Bobby is going about his homework very seriously tonight. 博比今天晚上在非常认真地做功课。④ How will you go about building the bird home? 你打算怎样着手建鸟舍?
(2) go about可作"流传"解释,此时about是副词,后面不需要跟宾语。如:① There are a lot 0f colds going about now.目前感冒传染很厉害。② A story is going about that there will be another party on the 15th of August. 据说八月十五日要举行另一次聚会。③ The rumor is going about that John and Mary are getting married. 谣传约翰和玛丽要结婚了。
(3) go about还有"到处走走"之意,此处about也是副词,相当于around。如:① People are going about more now that the weather's better. 因为天气热些了,人们外出增多了。② Is it dangerous to go about bareheaded when it's mining? 下雨的时候光着头到处走有危险吗? ③ Mother is much better, thank you, she's able to go about a bit more. 谢谢你,母亲好多了,她已能更多地走动了。
4. Have mercy on Antonio, Shylock. 宽恕Antonio吧,Shylock. (p. 67 Reading 第二行)
 have mercy on sb. 宽恕某人
▲ mercy n. 仁慈、怜悯、宽恕 She has mercy on little animals. 她怜悯小动物。They showed little mercy to their enemies. 他们对敌人毫不仁慈。
 (1) 这一意思也可以用show mercy to sb. 或give mercy to sb. 表示。如:① Have mercy on me. 饶了我吧!② They showed mercy to the defeated enemy. 他们饶恕了被打败的敌人。③ In Iraq, the American soldiers had no mercy on the prisoners of war. 在伊拉克,美军士兵对战俘毫无怜悯之意。④ The judge showed mercy to him. 法官宽恕了他。
(2) mercy也可作可数名词,这时意为"幸运的事""值得感激的事"。如:① What a mercy he escaped the fire!他从火里逃生,真是幸运。② He is thankful for small mercies. 他对小恩小惠也很感激。③ It was a mercy that she wasn't seriously injured. 谢天谢地,她没有受重伤。
 注意:表示被动意义时可以说:We were given no mercy. 我们没有得到宽恕。No mercy was shown to the prisoners. 对囚犯毫不宽恕。
联想:(复) mercies (同) charity, grace
拓展:at he mercy of 任由......摆布,在......掌握之中; have mercy on / upon sb. / sth. = show mercy to sb. / sth. 对......表示同情;对......有怜悯之心; without mercy 毫不留情地
5. I've promised to take my pound of flesh.我说过一定要拿走我的那一磅肉。(p. 67 Reading 第三行)
 ▲ promise
 (1) vt. 答应,允诺约定I don't remember I ever promised that. 我不记得我答应过这件事。
 (2) vt. promise + to + v. (原型) I never promised to obey her commands. 我从未答应过要服从她的命令。
 (3) vt. promise + n. / pron. + n. / pron. She promised me a gift for my birthday. 她答应送我一件生日礼物。
 (4) vt. promise + that从句He promised that he would come. 他答应来。
 (5) n. 诺言、约定Give me your promise that you'll never do that again. 答应我你永远不要再干那种事。
 联想:promise n. 诺言、约定、预示; promiser n. 做出诺言的人。
拓展:make a promise 做出承诺,允诺; keep one's promise遵守诺言; break one's promise食言
6. It's useless trying to argue with Shylock. 跟夏洛克讲理是没有用的。(p. 67 Reading 第七行)
 ▲ It's useless + doing是一固定句型,意思是"做某事没有用处"。
 拓展:It's useless / no use / no good + v.-ing做某事没有用处 (好处) It's no use quarreling with her. 跟她吵架没有用。It's of no use arguing about it. 争论这事没有用。It's no good crying over spilt milk. 后悔是没有用的。(谚语)覆水难收。Is it any good just crying? 光哭有什么用呢?
7. You might as well go stand upon the beach and argue with the sea. 你到不如站在海滩上跟大海讲理。 (p. 67 Reading 第七行)
 ▲ may / might / just / could as well do sth. (as do sth. else) 意思是"还是......的好""倒不如""干脆""不妨"。如:① If that's the case, I may as well try. 如果真是那样的话,我不妨试试。② I may as well admit that I knew the answer all along. 我干脆承认了吧,我早就知道答案。③ The weather was so bad we might as well have stayed home. 天气这样糟糕,我们还不如呆在家里呢。④ Anyway, you're here; you might as well stay. 反正你已经来了,最好还是住在这儿吧! ⑤ I might as well tell you the truth. 我不妨告诉你真相。 ⑥ I'll come with you if you like; I might as well.如果你愿意,我就和你一起去,我无所谓。⑦ If I've got to go somewhere, I may as well go to Birmingham. 如果我非得到什么地方去的话,我还是去伯明翰的好。
8. Pass judgment on me and give Shylock what he wants. 对我审判吧,把夏洛克想要的东西给他把。(p. 67 Reading 第八行)
 ▲ pass judgment (opinion) on sb. / sth.
pass judgment (opinion) on sb. / sth. 对......进行评价(批评),此处表示"作出判决"。如:① It's very hard to pass judgment on yourself. 对自己作出评价是很难的。② The voters will pass judgment on the government tonight. 选民们今晚得对政府作出评价。③ It's difficult to pass judgment on the affair when we know so little about what happened. 对发生的情况了解这么少,要作出判断是困难的。④ I can't pass my opinion on your works without examining it thoroughly.不仔细看,我不能对你的作品提出意见。
【注】 也可以说make one's judgment on / about / of sb. / sth.。如:① I shall make my own judgment on the matter when I see the results.看了结果后我将自作评价。 ② I don't really want to make any judgments on the decisions they made. 我真的不想对他们作出的决定作任何评价。
9. If you offered me six times what you have just offered,... 你愿意给我六倍于刚才你提出的那个钱数,... (p. 67 Reading 第十行) ▲ 动词offer的用法
(1) offer有"主动提出""提供"之意,表示提供一种东西或提出一项建议。如:① The young man offered the old woman his won seat. 那个年轻人要把自己的座位让给老大娘。② They offered him a job at the factory, but he refused.他们提出在工厂给他安排工作,但他拒绝了。 ③ They offered a reward for the return of the jewel that had been lost.他们悬赏寻找失去的珠宝。④ It began to rain, so I offered her my umbrella, but she would not take it. 天开始下雨,所以我把雨伞拿给她用,但她不要。
(2) offer表示"出价",与介词for连用,后接某事物。如:① I offered him thirty thousand dollars for the house. 我向他出价三万美元买这幢房子。② They offered their boat for sale for 2000 dollars. 他们把船拿来出售,索价两千美元。③ They offered him 3000 pounds for the computer. 他们愿意出三千镑来买他这台计算机。④ They offered two hundred francs for the right to reproduce the painting.他们愿意出二百法郎取得这幅画的复制权。
 【注】offer后接价钱,表示主语愿买;后接事物,表示主语愿出售该事物,请比较例句①~④。
 (3) offer既可作动词也可作名词用,不论作何种词,后面均可跟动词不定式。如:① He offered to lend me some books.他主动提出要借一些书给我。② Thank you for your kind offer to lend me some books.谢谢你好心借给我这些书。③ Thank you for your offer to help us. 谢谢你表示愿意帮助我们。④ He offered to drive us to the station, but we preferred to walk there. 他说他可以开车送我们去车站,但我们宁愿走着去。
 ▲ 倍数的表示方法
times作"倍数"解释时,是可数名词,用times表示"A是B的几倍大 (或高、长、宽、深等)""A比B大(或高、长、宽、深等)几倍",常见的句型如下:
(1) A is three (four... etc ) times the size (height,length,width,depth,etc) of B。如: ① The new bridge is four times the width of the old one.这座新桥是旧桥的四倍宽。② The meeting room is three times the size of the classroom.会议室是教室的三倍大。③ The tower is three times the height of the building.这座塔是那座楼房的三倍高。④ The river is five times the depth of the brook. 这条河是那条小溪的五倍深。
(2) A is three (four... etc) times as big (high,long,wide,deep,etc) as B。如: ① Asia is four times as large as Europe.亚洲是欧洲的四倍大。② This box is three times as heavy as that one.这个箱子是那个箱子的三倍重。③ This new highway is three times as wide as the old one. 新公路是旧公路的三倍宽。④ The classroom is four times as big as our dormitory.教室是我们寝室的四倍大。
 (3) A is three (four...etc) times bigger (higher,longer,wider,deeper etc) than B. 如:① The meeting room is three times bigger than our office.会议室比我们办公室大三倍(会议室是我们办公室的四倍大)。② Asia is three times larger than Europe.亚洲比欧洲大三倍。
【注】用times表示倍数,一般只限于表示基数在内三倍或三倍以上的数,表示两倍不用two times,而用twice或double。如:① My income is now double what it was.我的收入是以前的两倍。② Now the number of sheep is more than double that of 1990.现在羊的数目是一九九。年的两倍多。
10. ... I would still take my pound of flesh. 我还是要拿回我应得的那一磅肉。(p. 67 Reading 第十行)
flesh: (1) 肌肉,肉A fat man has a great deal of flesh. 胖子肉多。(2) 肉体 The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak. 心有余而力不足。
 辨析:flesh与meat的区别
(1) flesh和meat都解释为肉,但涵义有所不同,flesh指人和动物身上的肉,如指食用肉,则来指兽类的肉,不包括鱼禽类的肉。如:① Mr Green is losing flesh.格林先生瘦了。② Have you ever tasted the flesh of the snake? 你尝过蛇肉吗? ③ You should get up early and do some exercise. Otherwise, you'll put on flesh. 你应该早起锻炼,否则会发胖的。④ The Great Wall was made not only of stone and earth, but of the flesh and blood of millions of men. 长城不仅是用石头和泥土砌成的,而且是由几百万人的血肉所组成的。
(2) meat指供食用的肉,是兽类肉的总称;如pork,mutton,beef可统称为meat;有时也指植物的肉。如:the meat of an apple。① What kind of meat is it? 这是什么肉? ② I like meat while my brother likes fish. 我喜欢吃肉,而我弟弟喜欢吃鱼。
【注】 meat是不可数名词,"一块肉"是a piece of meat;"一磅肉"是a pound of meat, 我们看到的meats是指多种肉。
11. Shylock, how can you hope for mercy yourself when you show none? 夏洛克,如果你对别人一点都不仁慈,你自己怎么能希望得到别人对你的仁慈呢?(p. 67 Reading 第十三行) ▲ hope for
 hope for意为"希望""盼望。如:① Hope for the best, prepare for the worst. 抱最好的希望,作最坏的准备。② After this dry weather,people all hope for rain.经过了这段干旱,人们普遍希望下雨。③ We hope for better weather soon.我们希望天气尽快好转。④ This time they really hoped for better results. 这次他们的确希望取得较好的成果。⑤ How I hoped for his speedy recovery! 我多么希望他早日康复啊! ⑥ That would be too much to hope for. 那是期望过高了。
【注】hope后不能跟名词,但可以跟介词短语。如"盼望下雪",不能 说成hope snow,而应该说hope for snow;hope可以跟不定式作宾 语,但不定式不能作宾语补足语。例如我们不能说I hope you to come soon,而应该说I hope that you'll come soon。
 辨析:hope for;wish for与long for
 这三个词组都可作"希望、愿望"讲,但含义略有区别:
 ① hope for指盼望得到好的或有好结果,这种希望或能实现或实现不了。
 ② wish for常指想拥有很难得到的东西。
 ③ long for指强烈的愿望或渴望,语气最强。
 How I wish for a pair of wings! 我多么希望有一双翅膀啊! How he longs for a sense of being able to do things! 他多么渴望有能力办成事情啊!
拓展:pay for 为......付钱;fight for 为......而战;for all 尽管;for good 长期地;for nothing 不收费
12. I desire my pound of flesh. 我想要我的那一磅肉。(p. 67 Reading 倒数第六行) ▲ desire的用法
(1) desire意为"期望""想""希望",后接名词或代词。如: ① All he desired then was some spare time for study. 那时候他想的只是有些空余时间进行学习。② I desire rest after such a long walk.在那么长的散步后,我很想休息一下。③ The stranger said that he desired an interview. 那个陌生人说他希望受到接见。④ He couldn't well express his feelings however much he desired it.他没法恰当地表达出他的感情,不管他多么想这样做。
(2) desire后可跟不定式作宾语。如: ① She had never desired to do anything like that. 她从来没希望做这样的事。② There are a number of things that I desire to say. 有几件事我想讲一下。③ She desires to go south. 她希望去南方。④ There's one small point which I should desire to clear up. 有一个小问题我想澄清一下。
 (3) desire偶尔也可跟不定式作宾语补足语。如:① What do you desire me to do? 你希望我做什么? ② They desired him to go there at once.他们希望他马上到那里去。
 (4) desire也可作"请求""要求"解释,后面接宾语从句。在从句中常用虚拟语气,即should + 动词原形。如:① He desired that all letters should be burnt after his death.他请求在他死后把全部信件烧掉。② She desired that you should go and see her at once. 她请你马上去见她。③ The doctor desired that we should wait. 医生请求我们等一等。 ④ The teacher desired that all the exercises should be handed in before school was over.老师要求所有的作业在放学前交出。
13. Enter Portia, dressed as the judge. 鲍西亚走进法庭,穿着法官制服。(p. 67 Reading 倒数第五行)
 ▲ dress的一种用法: 在本课中作"打扮自己"解释,常用于短语dress up as sb. 或 dress up for sth.。如: ① They all dress up as PLA men.他们都打扮成解放军模样。② The little boy likes to dress himself as a policeman. 这小男孩喜欢扮成警察。③ They tried to dress him up as a "national hero".他们想把他打扮成一个"民族英雄"。④ She dressed up in Elizabeth costumes for the fancy dress ball. 她穿上伊丽莎白时代的服装去参加化装舞会。⑤ Mary Was dressed up to play Cinderella. 玛丽化好装,扮演灰姑娘。
14. Greetings, learned judge! I do not envy you your job.您好,博学的法官,我并不嫉妒您的工作。(p. 67 Reading 倒数第四行) ▲ greetings
(1) greeting的意思是"问候语...'招呼(或动作)",包括Hello / Hi / Good morning (after noon,evening) / Welcome / How are you等见面时的问 候,也包括在节日致以的问候,如Merry Christmas / Happy New Year /Happy birthday等,在本课中,直接用Greetings是一种非常正式的问候语,用在极为正式的场合说话者带有一种很恭敬的语气的情景中。如:① "Greetings, Reverend" he said respect- fully. 他恭敬地说:"牧师,您好"。
 (2) greetings可表示"祝愿""祝贺""问候语",如我们常看到的圣诞卡片上的词语Season's Greetings致节日的问候、birthday greetings生日贺词、Christmas Greetings圣诞快乐以及greeting card贺卡等。
 ▲ envy (1) 羡慕;嫉妒 My success excited his envy. 我的成功引起了他的嫉妒。(2) vt. 嫉妒;羡慕 常用予 v.+ n. / pron. 或 v. + n. / pron. + n. / pron. (双宾) 结构。John envied his friend's success. 约翰嫉妒朋友的成功。I envy you your good fortune. 我羡慕你的好运。
 注意:① envy后接两个宾语时,这两个宾语都是直接宾语,都可以直接和动词连用。② envy后不接从句。③ envy作名词时,其后接介词at或of。如:The boy's new toy was the envy of his friends. 这个男孩的新玩具是他的朋友妒忌的对象。
 ▲ envy也可以作名词用,为不可数名词,后接介词at,of或toward。① They only say such unkind things about you out of envy.他们是出于忌妒才讲了你那么多的坏话。 ② He felt envy at my success.他羡慕我的成功。③ His envy of his brother soon turned into jealousy. 他对哥哥的羡慕很快变成了忌妒。
 辨析:envy与jealousy 这两个词都有"嫉妒"的意思。jealousy着重对别人占有的东西恼恨不满。envy着重由于别人获得了自己本想获得的东西或成就而产生不快。如:His envy of his brother soon turned to jealousy. 他对弟弟的嫉妒很快变成了恼恨。
 联想:admire 钦佩、赞赏;envious adj. 羡慕的;嫉妒的;enviously adv. 羡慕地;嫉妒地
15. This is a most troublesome case. 这是一个非常麻烦的案子。(p. 67 Reading 倒数第三行) ▲ most
 (1) most adv. 常与两个音节以上的 adj. 或 adv. 构成最高级;adj. 最高级要加定冠词the,而adv. 最高级前可加可不加the。如:This is the most interesting film I have ever seen. 这是我所看到的最有趣的电影。 She works (the) most carefully in her office. 她是办公室里工作最仔细的。
 (2) adv. 最 What people like most about the doctor is his kindness. 人们最喜欢这医生的一点是他很和蔼。
 (3) (用于强调)非常;得 She was a most beautiful woman. 他是个很美丽的女人。
 (4) adj. 几乎全部的,大多数的。He has visited most countries in Europe. 他访问过欧洲大多数国家。
 (5) n. 几乎全部,大部分 I was in London most of the time. 大部分时间我在伦敦。
 联想:mostly adv. 大部分地;通常地、主要的
 拓展:at most至多不超过,for the most part大部分,多半,most of多数的
16. Please be seated. 请坐。(p. 67 Reading 倒数第一行)
▲ seat
(1) seat是及物动词,后必须跟宾语或用被动语态形式。如: ① The young couple seated themselves upon a bench that stood by the lake. 这对年轻的夫妇在湖畔的长椅上坐下。 ② He seated himself near the window and began to read. 他坐在窗户附近开始读书。③ She was seated at the piano with her back to them. 她坐在钢琴旁,背对着他们。 ④ Please be seated, ladies and gentlemen. 女士们,先生们,请坐下。⑤ I seated him in the armchair. 我使他坐在安乐椅上。⑥ Seat the telescope on the tripod. 把望远镜安装在三脚架上。
(2) seat可解释为"能坐......人"。如: ① That big cinema can seat 2000 people. 那家大型电影院能坐两千人。② There are seven waiting room there, seating 17000 people in all. 那里有七个候车室,总共可坐一万七千人。
【注】seat与sit的区别在于前者是及物动词,后者是不及物动词,我们可以说sit down,但不可以说seat down,而应该说He is seated。
17. Do you still ask for this pound of flesh? 你还要求得到那一磅肉吗?(p. 68 Reading 第八行)
 ▲ ask for, ask about及ask after
(1) ask for在本课中意为"要求(得到)"。如: ① After Oliver finished his bowl of porridge, he asked for more. 奥立弗吃完一碗粥以后要求再添一些。② Everything that was asked for has now been sent. 所要的东西现在全送去了。③ The workers asked for an increase in their pay.工人们要求提高工资。④ She walked up to the counter mad asked for a pound of sugar. 她走到柜台前,要买一磅白糖。⑤ Mr Smith, a lady is asking for you at the door. 史密斯先生,门口有位太太要找您。⑥ He is not the man you are asking for.他不是你要找的那个人。⑦ Has anyone asked for me during my absence? 我不在的时候有人找过我吗? ⑧ Just now someone asked for you on the phone.刚才有人打电话找你。
 【注】 ask sb.for sth.意为"向某人要某物""请求给予"。如: ① Ask Xiao Lin for anything you want. 你要什么东西,可以找小林。② They asked the waiter for their bill. 他们向服务员要帐单。
 (2) ask about意为"询问" "打听"。如: ① The commander asked about the wounded soldier's condition.指挥员询问了那个伤兵的情况。② He rang up the station office to ask about the trains.他给车站办公室打了个电话询问关于火车的事。
 (3) ask after意思是"问候"。如: ① When I met Mrs Smith this morning, she asked after you and the children.今天早晨我碰见史密斯太太时,她问候你和孩子们。② They were all very concerned, and your health was asked after. 他们都很关心,并问候你的身体情况。③ "My mother asked after you." "Oh, how kind of her." "我母亲问候你。""多谢她的好意。"
18. ... and let me tear up this paper. 让我把这张借条撕了。(p. 68 Reading 第十九行)
 ▲ tear up撕毁,撕碎 ① He tore up the letter angrily and threw it into the waste-paper basket. 他气愤地把信撕掉,扔进废纸篓里。 ② He tore up sheet after sheet of music before producing the happy tune he wanted. 他撕掉一篇又一篇的乐谱,最后才写出他想要的满意的调子。③ John tore up his test paper so that his mother won't see his low grades. 约翰撕碎试卷,以便妈妈看不到他糟糕的成绩。④ Yuan Shikai openly tore up the constitution. 袁世凯公开撕毁了宪法。
▲ tear up有"(完全地)拔起、提起""撕开"之意。如: ① The wind tore up several trees.风把几棵树连根拔起。② Dozens of miles of railway track have been torn up.几十里的火车道被拔起。
▲tear up可作"撕毁(取消)协议、契约"解释。如: ① A contract cannot be tom up at will. 合约不能任意取消。 ② He told the lawyer to tear up the old contract and to prepare a new one. 他告诉律师撤消旧合同,制订一份新的。
▲ tear up也可引申为"飞快地跑上......"之意。如: The sportsman tore up the stairs two steps at a time. 那运动员两级一跨地飞奔上楼。
19. I declare the court allows it and the law gives it to you. 我宣布法庭可以允许这样做,法律把他判给你。(p. 68 Reading 倒数第一行) ▲ declare一词的用法
(1) declare意为"宣布""宣告""声明",后接名词或从句。如: ① Britain declared war on / against Germany on 3rd, September 1939. 一九三九年九月三日英国对德国宣战。② The colonies declared their independence from England. 这些殖民地宣告脱离英国而独立。③ He declared to us that he bad done the work himself.他一本正经地向我们说他独自完成了工作。④ Charles declared the result of the election.查尔斯宣布了选举结果。⑤ Miss Alice declared that she had nothing to do with it.艾丽斯小姐声称她和这事无关。⑥ She declared that she didn't want to see him any more. 她声称她再也不想见到他了。
 (2) declare后面可接复合结构,该复合结构可由形容词、介词短语、不定式、分词充当。如: ① The teacher declared Tom chosen. 老师宣布汤姆被选上了。② The chairman declared the meeting open.主席宣布开会。③ The boys declared themselves against cheating. 男孩子们宣称他们自己也反对欺骗行为。④ They declared his story to be true.他们声明他的说法是真实的。
 辨析:announce 与 declare
 ① announce 宣布 (含有"预告"的意思) It was announced that there would be a celebration on Sunday. 据宣布,星期日要举行庆祝(会)。
 ② 用announce说个人要做什么事时,常含有"郑重其事"的意思。The boy announced that he was going to try out his toy plane that afternoon. 那男孩向大家宣布,他下午要试飞他的玩具飞机。
 ③ declare宣布 (如:公开宣布战争、和平、中立、意见等) This power country declared war on that small country. 这个大国向那个小国宣战。
 联想:declarer n. 宣告者;declared adj. 公然宣称的 (同) announce announcement n. (可数)通告,布告
 拓展:declare oneself 表明自己的立场;declare peace 宣布和平;declare war on (against) 对......宣战
Section III 词汇语法、综合技能
20. Antonio lost all his ship at sea ... Antonio在茫茫大海上丢了所有的船 (p. 69 Language Study Ex.2)
▲ at sea及其他
(1) at sea表示"在茫茫大海上",意指"离海岸很远"。如: ① Now his ships were all at sea. 现在他的船都出海了。② The ship hit an iceberg and buried at sea.这船撞上了冰山,葬身海底。③ Several ships were lost at sea owing to the hurricane. 由于飓风,好几艘船在海上失踪。
(2) at sea前面加上all或completely时,引申为"茫然不知所措"之意。如: ① I'm all at sea. I can't understand that problem.我简直是一片茫然,我无法理解这个问题。② He was all at sea when he began his new job. 他开始新工作时,茫然不知所措。 ③ Would you please explain it again? I'm all at sea.你能否再解释一下?我一点儿也不懂。④ The girl was completely at sea when her mother scolded her. 当母亲责怪她时,女孩茫然不知所措。
 ▲ 请注意by sea与by the sea的区别,前者表示"经海路",后者表示 "在海边"。如: ① "How did you go there? By train?" "No, we went there by sea." "你们怎么到那里去的?乘火车?""不,我们乘船去的那里。" ② The Turners lived by the sea. 特纳一家住在海边。
 ▲注意go to the sea与go to sea的区别,前者意为"去海滨"(度假或野餐),后者表示"去当水手"。如: ① Last Sunday, the students in Class Two went to the sea.上星期天,二班的学生去海边玩。② "I want to go to sea when I grow up." said the boy to his mother. 这小男孩对母亲说:"我长大了要去当水手。"
21. Shylock advances towards Antonio and prepares to use his knife. 夏洛克朝安东尼奥走去,准备割肉。(p. 71 Integrating Skills 第一行) ▲ 动词advance及其用法
(1) advance在本课中意为"前进...'发展...'往前走",相当于step forward。如: ① They advanced to meet the guests. 他们走上前迎接客人。② About 80 percent of the graduates advanced to senior middle school. 约有百分之八十的毕业生升入高中。③ We were ordered to advance on the enemy position under cover of darkness.我们得到命令,在黑夜的掩护下向敌人阵地进攻。④ The troops advanced rapidly to the village. 部队迅速前进到那个村庄。
(2) advance可作及物动词用,意为"提出"。如: ① He was among the first to advance the idea that the earth was round. 他是最早提出地球是圆的这一观点的人中的一个。② The proposal he advanced at the meeting was not accepted.他在会上提出的建议没有被接受。③ He had no chance to advance his opinion.他没有机会提出自己的意见。
(3) advance还有"增进...'促进""提前""提升"之意。如: ① This will further advance the friendly relations between the two countries.这将进一步增进两国之间的友好关系。② The time of the meeting was advanced by an hour. 会议时间提前了一个小时。③ He was soon advanced to the position of Secretary of State.不久他就被提升为国务卿了。④ Such books are likely to advance your knowledge of European history.
这一类书可能会增进你对有关欧洲历史知识的了解。
 (4) advance也可作名词用,意思和动词差不多。如: ① The enemy couldn't make any advance, nor could they go back. 敌人进不得,也退不得。② Great advances have been made in medical science. 医疗科学取得巨大的进展。
 【注】in advance意思是"预先""在前面",而in advance of意思是"在...前""超过..."。如: ① The subject of the discussion is announced a week in advance.讨论的题目提前一周公布。② I had asked everyone to raise questions in advance of the meeting. 我要求大家在会议前提出问题。③ He arrived half an hour in advance. 他提前半小时到达。
【注】in advance of也可引申为"比...先进"。如: Our equipments are far in advance of theirs. 我们的设备远比他们的先进。
22. If you let one drop of his blood fall, you will lose...要是你让他身上的血流下一滴,有就会失去... (p. 71 Integrating Skills 第三行) ▲ drop
 (1) n. 滴, 点滴 There were a few drops of rain.下了几滴雨。
 (2) v. 使滴下 The wet leaves dropped water. 湿叶在滴水珠。
 (3) v. 使落下 Please drop it into the mail-box. 请把它投到邮箱里。
 辨析:drop 与 fall drop 可作及物动词,而fall不能。表示无意或故意"掉下来"某一物体,或故意"跌倒"时,用drop,不用fall。drop 和 fall 都可作不及物动词,表示"掉下" "落下"。The Class 2 runner dropped his stick on the ground. 2班的运动员不小心把接力棒掉在了地上。The glass dropped (或fell) out of her hand. 杯子从她手里掉了下来。He dropped (或fell) to the ground. 他摔倒在地上。
 联想:dropcurtain 吊幕;droplight 吊灯;dropshot 扣球;dropsy 水肿
拓展:drop asleep 入睡;drop back 退后;drop across 偶然遇到;drop in 顺便走访;drop into 不知不觉地进人某种状态;have a drop in one's eye 有点醉意
23. You wanted justice, so you shall get justice, more than you wanted. 你要求公正,那么就让你得到公正,比你要求的还要多。(p. 71 Integrating Skills 第六行)
 ▲ shall作为情态动词的用法
作为情态动词shall可用于任何人称,在陈述句中表示允诺、威胁、命令、决心、规定、要求等。如:
(1) 表示允诺。如: ① Tell her that she shall get the book tomorrow. 告诉她明天就可以拿到那本书了。② I promise you shall see them again before long. 我保证你不久就会见到他们。③ Don't worry, you shall get the answer this very afternoon. 别着急,今天下午你就可以得到答复了。④ You shall have higher pay if you work well. 如果你工作得好,你就可以得到较高的工资。⑤ You shall hear everything directly you come. 你一来,就什么都会听到。
(2) 表示威胁、命令。如: ① You shall suffer for this! 你会为这件事吃苦头的! ② As a mall sows, so he shall reap. 善有善报,恶有恶报。③ They shall suffer for this; they shall answer for what they have done.他们将没有好下场,他们要为他们的所作所为付出代价。④ "If you won't do as I tell you, you shan't get your birthday gift." said father to Tom. 父亲对汤姆说:"如果你不听话,你就得不到生日礼物。" ⑤ "You shall do everything as I do, so look carefully." said the teacher to the students.老师对学生说:"你们必须照我做的去做,看仔细了。"
 (3) 表示决心。如: ① Everything shall be done to save the ship. 必须尽一切力量来营救这艘船。② I shall never do such a thing, never! 这种事我是绝对不干的,绝对不干! ③ You shall not catch me so easily next time. 下次你决不会那么容易赶上我。 ④ The enemy shall be wiped out. 敌人一定会被消灭。
(4) 用在条约、规则、法令等事件中。如: ① The new regulation shall take effect on June 1st. 新章程六月一日起施行。② The National Party Congress shall be held every five years. 党的全国代表大会每五年举行一次。
(5) 用在某些从句中,表示意图,要求,相当于should。如: ① We are anxious that he shall be given a chance to try it out. 我们热切希望能给他机会试一试。 ② My demand is that you shall get it ready before five. 我要求你在五时前把它准备好。③ I wish that you shall stay at home tonight. 我希望今晚你会留在家里。④ I'm anxious that it shall be done in time. 我急于要把这件事及时做好。⑤ My mother is determined that I shall stay on. 妈妈决定让我待下去。
24. The law of Venice says that if anyone tries to kill or murder any citizen of Venice, ... 威尼斯法律规定,任何杀害或谋杀威尼斯公民的人,...(p. 71 Integrating Skills 倒数第14行) ▲ murder
 (1) vt. 谋杀He murdered his rival in cold blood. 他残忍地杀害了他的对手。
 (2) n. 谋杀罪He was accused of committing murder. 他被指控犯了谋杀罪。
 辨析:murder,kill与shoot
 ① murder 指谋杀 ② kill 笼统地表示"杀"的事实
 ③ shoot 表示用枪或箭射杀
 One day, a man was murdered in a small town. 一天,一个人在一小城被谋杀。The polluted air killed the crops. 被污染了的空气使庄稼死亡。He was killed in an accident. 他在一次事故中死去。The prisoner of war shot himself. 那个战犯自杀了。
 联想:(派) murderer 凶手;murderess 女凶手
 拓展:political murder 政治谋杀;a mass murder 大屠杀;get away with murder 逍遥法外;The murder is out 真相大白
25. His life shall be at the mercy of the Duke.他的生命全凭公爵来处理。(p. 71 Integrating Skills 倒数第11行)
 ▲ at the mercy of 这一短语的意思是"任由......摆布""在......的掌握(支配)中",相当于in the power of。如: ① The ship hit a rock and sank down, the crew were at the mercy of the winds and waves. 船撞上礁石下沉了,船员在风浪中随波飘流。② People at Altorf would not like to be at the mercy of Gesler, the cruel governor. 阿尔托夫的人们不愿意忍受总督盖斯勒的摆布。③ The dog's life was at the mercy of its master. 狗的生命掌握在它主人手中。④ The mouse caught just now was at the mercy of the cat, his cruel enemy. 刚才被抓住的那只老鼠现在由它的残忍的敌人猫任意摆布。
26. Therefore, go down on your knees and beg the Duke for mercy. 因此,快去跪下请求公爵宽恕你吧。(p. 71 Integrating Skills 倒数第11行)
 ▲ go down on one's knees 跪下、屈膝
此短语中的go也可以用get替代.即get down on one's knees。如: ① Never go down on one's knees before enemy.
在敌人面前决不能屈膝。② He went down on his knees and begged for mercy. 他跪地求饶。 ③ Father went down on his hands and knees and let his son ride on his back. 父亲趴在地上让儿子骑在他背上。 ④ The young man went down on his hands and then stood on his bead against the wall. 这年轻人双手着地,然后靠墙倒立。
【注】 go down on one's knees与get down on one's knees意思相同,但go down和get down意思不同。这一点请同学们务必注意go down作"下落""减弱"解释,而get down作"放下""打下"解释。如: ① On the third day, his fever went down. 到了第三天,他的烧退了。② The prices of computers are expected to go further down. 计算机的价格可望进一步下跌。③ The moon has gone down and it is dark around.月亮已经西沉了,四下里黑漆漆的。④ At night the north wind went down and the river froze again. 晚上北风减弱,河里又结了冰。⑤ I couldn't get down what he said. 我没能把他说的话都记录下来。⑥ They got down two enemy aircrafts last night. 昨晚他们打下了两架敌机。⑦ The medicine was so bitter that I couldn't get it down. 这药太苦,我吃不下去。⑧ Will you give me a hand to get this trunk down? 你帮我把这皮箱拿下来好吗?
27. My money and goods are as dear to me as life itself.我的钱财对我就像生命一样宝贵。(p. 71 Integrating Skills 倒数第5行) ▲ dear的几种用法
 (1) adj. 亲爱的,可爱的 What a dear little child! 多么可爱的小孩。
 (2) dear此处作"珍贵的"解释。如: ① He lost everything that Was dear to him. 他丧失了他所珍视的一切。② Fame and power are very dear to him. 名誉和权力对他来说是非常珍贵的。③ To him very dear is the power by which he can control people and get money. 对他来说,权力是非常珍贵的,通过它可以支配人并得到钱财。
 (3)dear可以作"(价格)昂贵的""索价高的"解释。如: ① It is too dear. 这价钱太贵了。② It you want to make money, you must buy cheap and sell dear. 如果你想赚钱,你必须便宜的买进昂贵的卖出。
 【注】dear与expensive的异同点。dear与expensive都有"价格昂贵" 之意,都不能与price连用。例如我们不能说"The price of the motorcycle is too dear / expensive, 而只能说The motorcycle is too dear / expensive或The price of the motorcycle is too high. 因为修饰price的只能是high或low。以上讲的是dear与expensive这两个词相同的地方。但这两个词也有不同的一面。dear所表示 的价格贵,是超乎常情的贵,讲得通俗一点,是指某个商品价格很贵,但实际不值那么多钱,而expensive所表示的贵,有"物美价高非购买者财力所及"之意,举例来说,如果一辆价值十万元的车卖十万元,就不能说dear,而只能说expensive;但如果一斤桔子通常卖一元,如卖一元五角,就应该说dear。
 ▲ dear还可用作感叹词,相当于汉语的"天啊""哎呀",表示伤心、焦急、惊奇、遗憾、同情等。如: ① Oh, dear! What shall I do? 噢!天啊!我该怎么办呢? ② "Dear me", said the old minister to himself, "Am I foolish or unfit for my office?" "天哪",老大臣心里想,难道我也愚蠢或不称职了? ③ "Oh,dear! How call you draw on the wall?" "噢,天啊!你怎么能在墙上乱画?"
28. They are my only comfort. 他们是我唯一的安慰。(p. 71 Integrating Skills 倒数第5行) ▲ comfort
 (1) n. 安慰、慰籍The nurse spoke a few words of comfort to the sick boy. 护士对小病人说了几句安慰的话。
 (2) n. 舒适,安逸The news brought comfort to all of us. 这个消息使我们所有人都感到安慰。
 (3) v. 安慰 He always comforts me when I'm in trouble.每当我处于困境时,他总是来安慰我。
 联想:comfortable adj. 舒适的(反义词) uncomfortable 不舒适的;comfort [U] 舒适(反义词) discomfort 不舒适
拓展:give comfort to 安慰;live in comfort 生活舒适;offer sb. comfort 给人以安慰
高二英语Unit20 Archaeology知识点总复习教案
Section I 课前准备、听力、口语
1. Practise expressing curiosity. 联系表达好奇心。(p.73 Goals)
 curiosity n. 好奇心; 求知欲;珍品, 古董; 奇人[事、物] 奇特性
He is full of curiosity. 他充满了好奇心。
be on tiptoe with curiosity充满好奇心
from curiosity (=out of curiosity) 在好奇心驱使下
in open curiosity 公然出头过问与自己无关的事
Curious killed a cat. 好奇伤身。
2. Describe the life of people in China during the periods above. 描绘一下上图那个时期中国人的生活。(p.73 Warming Up 1) ▲ describe
 (1) vt. 形容,描写
 搭配:describe...as 把......描绘成,把......说成Words can't describe my joy. 语言不能形容我的快乐。He described himself as a teacher. 他说自己是老师。
 (2) vt. 画(图形),制(图) He described a circle within a square. 他在一个正方形内画了个圆。
 (3) 短语 beyond description 无法用语言形容的
 The play was boring beyond description. 这出戏枯燥得难以用语言来形容。
 巧记:-scribe 动词后缀;-scription 名词后缀; -scriptive 形容词后缀
 联想:(派)description n. 描写,形容;种类,性质descriptive 描述的,说明的
3. ...what did their homes look like? 你的家乡看上去是什么样子的? (p.73 Warming Up 1)
 ▲ What...like? ......怎么样/像什么/什么样子?
 What is he like? 用来询问人的性格、能力、成就或给人的印象,亦可询问外表。
 用于指物时,What is it like? 用来询问事物的性质、质量、特征等,有时候要求作详细的描述。What does he / it look like? 仅仅用于询问人或事物的外部特征。-- What's her mother like? 她母亲是什么样的人? -- Oh, she is quite nice. 噢,她相当好。-- What's the new teacher like? 新老师是什么样的人? -- He's got a red beard and he makes stupid mistakes. 他留着红胡子,犯一些愚蠢的错误。What is the tea like? 这茶怎么样? (指质量) -- What was the concert like? 音乐会怎么样? -- It was excellent. 太妙了。What's the weather like this morning? 今天上午的天气怎么样? -- What does it look like? 它是什么样子? -- It's small and square. 它很小,是正方形的。-- What does he look like? 他是什么样的人? -- He is tall and thin and very badly dressed. 他又高又瘦,穿戴很糟。
 注意:What is he? 用来询问职业、职务、社会地位等。How is he? / How are you? 通常对身体状况的询问。
 -- What is your brother? 你哥哥是做什么工作的?
 -- He is a worker. 他是个工人。
 -- How are you? 你好吗?
 -- Fine, thank you. And you? 很好,你呢?
4. I'm curious about... 我对...感到好奇。(p.75 Useful expressions)
 ▲ curious adj. 好奇的;有求知欲的 A good student should always be curious to learn. 好学生应有求知欲。Don't be too curious about things you are not supposed to know. 对于不要你知道的事别多去打听。It is curious that he should have failed to win the race. 他竟然没赢得比赛,真是奇怪。
 注意:be curious about 对......好奇;It is curious + that... ......是奇怪的;be curious to do sth. 渴望去做某事(强调好奇心态)
 辨析:curious,anxious 与 eager
 curious 强调好奇心态,anxious 侧重"忧虑",
 eager作"渴望的,热切的"强调一种积极向上的心态。
The boy is curious about the origin of mankind. 这个男孩对人类起源感到好奇。We are anxious about his safety. 我们为他的安全而忧虑。He is eager to join the PLA. 他渴望参加人民解放军。
联想:(派) curiously adv. 好奇地 curiosity n. 好奇(心)
Section II 阅读
5. On May 3, 2002, archaeologists in England found a grave of a man dating back to around 2300 BC. 2002年5月3日,英国考古学家发现了一座约公元前2300的男人墓穴。(p.75 Reading 第一段 第1行)
 date back to追溯到......
▲date此处作动词用,意为"确定......的年代""计算......的日期"通常与from或back to连用,意为"追溯到......" 如:① The castle dates back to the 14th century. 这城堡可以追溯到十四世纪。② The prosperity of the family dates from the war.这个家族的富裕可追溯到战争年代。③ This custom dates back to the Tang Dynasty.这习俗可追溯到唐朝。
【注】 date作动词时,可引申为"(开始)变得过时"之意。如:① Some James Bond films have dated more quick- ly than others.有些"007"电影比其他的过时得快。② This sort of style never dates. 这种流行式样永远不会过时。
【注】 date还有"显示人的年龄"之意。如:That suit dates you so much. 你穿那套衣服使你显得很老。
6. That would have made him a man of distinction. 这能显示出他地位的卓越。(p.75 Reading 第二段 第3行)
 distinction n. 区别; 差别; 不同之处;特征; 特性; 个性;优越; 卓越; 盛名;功勋; 荣 誉; 勋章
the chief distinction of Chinese food中国食品的主要特征
a writer of distinction 一位卓越的作家
academic distinctions学术上的荣誉
There is no appreciable distinction between the twins. 在这对孪生子之间看不出有什么明显的差别。His distinc- tion of sound is excellent. 他辨别声音的能力很强。His style lacks distinction. 他的文体缺乏个性。
7. Next to them lay a cushion stone, upon which the man could work metal. 在它们的旁边放着一块垫东西的石头,这个人有可能在上面锻造金属。(p.75 Reading 第三段 第2 -3行)
▲本句是一个倒装句,主语是a cushion stone,谓语是lie的过去式lay,整个谓语都提前,为全部倒装。这种倒装结构主要是为了句子的平衡,在宾语中,有时句子的主语过长,又没有宾语,为了使句子较为平衡,同时也为了使句子更生动,常将状语提到句首,将主谓倒装,这种倒装是直接把谓语动词放到主语之前,不需要加 助动词。请阅读下面的倒装句,体会这种倒装句的结构。 ① Over the wall came a shower of stones.从墙上飞来一阵石块。② On every - side stretched fields of green wheat.四周都是葱茏的麦田。③ At the top of the hill stood a tiny temples.在山顶上有一座小小的寺庙。④ Next to it stood a pile of paper cups.它旁边立着一堆纸杯。⑤ In the distance could be seen the green hills.能看到远处绿色的群山。⑥ In the doorway stood a man with a gun.门道里站着一个拿枪的人。
 ▲ work在此处作及物动词用,意为"制作""锻造""塑造"。如:① He worked a silver dollar into a bracelet.
他把一枚银元铸成一只手镯。② They worked a piece of copper into a tray.他们把一块铜铸成一个盘子。
 【注】work作及物动词时有多种意思,请阅读下列句子,体会work的含意。① He worked his farm with success. 他成功地经营着他的农场。② Our teacher works us very hard. 我们的老师对我们抓得很紧。③ The wounded man worked his way across the fields on his hands and knees. 这受伤的人靠手和膝盖爬过田野。④ Can you work the stone into place? 你能慢慢挪动石头使它就位吗? ⑤ The landlord almost worked his farmhands to death. 那地主迫使雇农们累死累活地干。⑥ Do you know how to work the machine? 你知道这机器怎么开吗?
8. It was all that a person would need to survive - clothing, tools, weapons, pottery and spare materials to make new tools. 这些全都是一个人赖以生存的必需品-衣服、工具、武器、陶瓷、以及制造新工具用的备用材料。(p.75 Reading 第三段 倒数第1行) ▲ spare
 (1) adj. 备用的 Please stay with us, we have a spare room for you. 请住下吧,我们有给你的备用房间。Each car should have a spare tyre. 每辆车都应有个备用轮胎。
 (2) adj. 多余的,空闲的What do you like doing in your spare time. 在空余时间,你喜欢干什么? Have you got a spare moment? There is something I'd like to discuss. 你有空吧? 我有事要跟你讨论。
 (3) v. 出让,抽出(时间) 让给He said he could spare me 5 minutes. 他说他能为我抽出5分钟的自由活动时间。Can you spare me this book for a while? 这本书你能让我看一会儿吗?
 (4) v. 节约,省用We hope that readers will not spare their comments. 我们希望读者无保留地提出意见。No trouble was spared to make sure the guests enjoyed themselves. 不惜一切代价确保客人们玩得尽兴。
 (5) v. 省掉,用不着We can spare you for tomorrow. 明天我们可以不要你帮忙了。Use the telephone and spare yourself a visit. 打个电话,用不着你亲自去一趟。
 注意:spare no effort(s) 不遗余力;spare no expense 不惜工本
9. The discovery is important for a variety of reason.这次发现非常重要,其原因是多方面的。(p.75 Reading 第四段 第1行) ▲ variety
 (1) n. 多样化,变化She doesn't like the work because it lacked variety;she was doing the same thing all the time.她不喜欢这项工作因为它缺乏变化,她过去一直做同样的工作。
 (2) n. 种类Everyone arrived late at the party, for a varie- ty of reasons. 由于种种原因,所有人到会都迟到了。
 拓展:a variety of = varieties of 各种各样a lot of = lots of 大量,许多a mass of = masses of 众多,大量 都既修饰可数名词也修饰不可数名词
 联想:(派) vary v. 变化;改变 various adj. 不同的,各种各样的
10. Archaeologists tend to believe that this man was a member of a powerful class ... 考古学家倾向于认为这个人是有权阶级中的一员。(p.76 Reading 第一段 第1行) ▲ 动词tend的用法
 (1) tend在本课中作"倾向于""有某种趋势"解,后接不定式。如:① My mother tends to get tired in the evenings.我母亲在晚上容易疲劳。② His novels tend to be pessimistic.他的小说有悲观倾向。③ A problem for manufacturers is that lighter cars tend to be noisy. 制造商所面临的问题是较轻型的轿车往往噪音很大。④ It tends to rain a lot in summer here.这儿夏天常常下雨。⑤ I tend to think that members of parliament do a good job.我常常以为议员们的工作总是做得很好。
(2) tend也可作"有助于"解。如: These measures tend to improve working conditions.这些措施有助于改善工作条件。
(3) tend在正式用语中有"照管""照例""护理"之意,相当于look after。① He tends the flower beds and evergreens that he has planted in the driveway. 他总是细心呵护着种植在车道边的花圃和常青树。② She tended her husband carefully during his illness.丈夫生病期间,她悉心照顾他。
11. But the smaller blue stones, still weighing four tons on average, came from west Wales. 但是,更小的蓝石头平均都有四吨重,它们是从威尔士西部运来的。(p.76 Reading 第二段 第3行) ▲ weigh
 (1) vt. / vi. 称......的重量,掂量......的分量; 重量为Have you weighed yourself lately? 最近你称体重了吗? The first man-made satellite of our country weighs 173 kilograms. 我国第一颗人造卫星重173公斤。
 注意:weigh作及物动词,意为"称......",强调动作;用作不及物动词,意为"重......",没有被动语态。
 (2) v. 考虑,权衡 You have to weigh the costs of the new system against the benefit it will bring. 你必须权衡新体系的花费和它将带来的利益。weigh the advantages and disadvantages 权衡利弊
 拓展:by weight 按重量计算;put on weight 体重增加;lose weight 体重减轻; weight lifting 举重
 They are sold by weight. 它们是按重量出售的。
 She's lost weight / put on weight since I last saw her. 从我上次见到她,她已经变瘦/胖了。
12. It is not yet known how these were conveyed over a distance of 380 kilometres. 至今还不知道这些石头是如何从380公里以外的地方运来的。(p.76 Reading 第二段 第4行) ▲ 谈谈动词convey的用法
(1) 本课中convey作"搬运""运送"解。如:① This ship conveys oil from the Middle East.这艘船从中东运输石油。② This train conveys both passengers and goods. 这列火车既载客又运货。③ A taxi conveyed us to the railway station. 一辆出租车将我们载到火车站。④ A chimney conveys smoke to the outside. 烟囱将烟排到室外。
(2) convey可作"表达""传达(思想感情)""转达"解释。① "Really?" I said, trying to convey that it did not really matter. "真的吗?"我说,意思是说那并非真的要紧。② Convey my congratulations to your brother. 代我向你弟弟表示祝贺。③ His manner conveyed a slight nervousness. 他的态度透露出一点紧张。④ I couldn't convey my feelings in words at that time.当时我的心情无法用语言表达。⑤ Words cannot convey how happy I am. 言语无法表达我是多么幸福。
(3) convey亦可作"传导""传播""传染"解。如:① Air is the medium by which sound waves are conveyed.空气是声波传播的媒质。② A wire conveys an electric current. 导线输送电流。
13. It is possible that the King of Stonehenge was linked to the stones:... 这可能与巨石王有关...(p.76 Reading 第二段 倒数第2行) ▲ link
 (1) v. 用环连接;连接,联系The road links all the new towns. 这条路联通所有新城镇。Our struggle against imperialism is closely linked to that of the world's people. 我们的反帝斗争是同全世界人民的反帝斗争紧密联系的。
 (2) n. 环节,链环 Research has established a link between smoking and lung cancer. 研究已确定了吸烟与肺癌的关系。The links in a chain of development. 发展过程中的各个环节 Cultural links 文化联系Keep close links with the masses 密切联系群众
 辨析:link (up) with,connect with 及 join (...to) 与 adjoin to link (up) with = connect with 与......相连接:通常"水域"相连用link (up) with,"车辆 (道路,交通)"相连用connect with join (...to) 指直接连接(两个以上的东西) adjoin to 与......毗邻 There the irrigation canal links up with the reservoir. 这条灌溉渠道在那儿与水库连接起来。The trolley bus connects here with a bus for the airfield. 这辆无轨电车在这儿衔接去机场的公共汽车。The new highway has joined our commune to the city. 这条新高速公路把我们的公社与城市连接起来了。The cotton field adjoins to the rice field. 棉田与稻田相接。
14. ... he may have had a hand in planning the monu- ment , or in helping transport and pull up the stones. 他可能参与策划建立这个纪念碑,或者帮助运输和竖起巨石。(p.76 Reading 第二段 倒数第1-2行)
 ▲ have a / one's hand in
(1) 也可以用take a hand in,意为"参与""介入" "对...负责一部分责任"。如:① I had no hand in arranging the meeting. 我不负责安排这次会议。② I doubt John had a hand in this. 我怀疑约翰参与此事。③ This matter is in Mr Wilson's charge. I can't have a hand in it.这件事由威尔逊先生负责,我不能插手。④ Tom has some difficulty in repairing his radio. Let's take a hand in it.汤姆修收音机时碰到了困难,让我们来帮他一下。
 (2) hand是一个常用词,可与很多动词或介词构成固定搭配,请记住下面一些常见的词组。如:in hand在手里(边),在掌握 (控制) 中,在考虑中;in sb.'s hands或in the hands of sb. 在某人的支配 (照顾,监护) 之下;in good / safe hands在妥善的管理中;have one's hands full with无法分身;on hand出席的,随时可用的。如:① Don't worry -- all the arrangements are in hand. 别担心,一切已安排就绪。② Give them a call to let them know we've the matter in hand. 给他们去个电话,让他们知道我们已处理了此事。③ There's no rush. We still have two days in hand before the deadline. 别急,截止日期以前我们还有两天时间可用。④ It's all in Jenny's hands now. 此事全归詹妮负责。⑤ The whole affair is now in the hands of the police. 整个事情现已由警方处理。⑥ We left the project in the good hands 0f our manager. 我们把这个项目交给经理去妥善管理。⑦ The nurse will be on hand if you need her. 护士随叫随到。⑧ There was simply no cash on hand to meet the cost of food.只是手头上没有现钱来付饭钱。⑨ She had her hands full with new arrivals. 由于要照料这些新生,她忙得不可开交。⑩ He has his hands full with the children and finishing his work in time.他又要照顾孩子们,又要及时完成工作,忙得不可开交。
 拓展:与hand构成的介词短语:
 hand in hand 手拉手;同时发生
 from hand to hand 从一人之手转到他人之手
 in (on) hand 手头上
 out of hand 立刻马上
 at hand 在手边;在附近;即将来临
 hand to hand 短兵相接地
 by hand 手工
 on (the) one hand 一方面
 lend a hand 帮助
 on the other hand 另一方面
 与hand构成的动词短语
 hand down (= pass down) 把......传下去
 hand sth. out to sb. 分配;发配
 hand in 上交
 hand back 交还
 hand sb. sth 传给某人某物
 ▲ pull up
(1) 此处意为"竖起""把......拉上来"。如:① She can't climb very well. We had to pull her up. 她不善攀登,我们只得把她拉上来。② The boy pulled his sledge up the hill. 男孩把雪撬拉上山来。③ I pulled him up out of the water. 我把他从水里拉上来。 ④ We pulled up the weeds by the roots. 我们把草连根拔起。
(2) pull up可作"(车子)停下"翻译。如:① We had not gone many miles when we were pulled up the police.我们还没走多少里就被警察拦住了。② The ear pulled up in front of the hotel. 汽车在宾馆前面停了下来。③The policeman pulled up the motorist and asked to see his licence.警察让那个骑摩托车的人停下来,要看他的执照。④ He pulled up his horse outside the inn for lunch.他在旅馆外面下马,准备吃午饭。
(3) pull up还有"阻止""斥责"之意。如:① Jack talked rudely to Mother, and Father pulled him up.杰克对母亲讲话粗鲁,遭到父亲的训斥。② You should pulled those children up about their table manners. 那些孩子就餐时举止不好,你应该训训他们。③ The chairman pulled him up. 主席制止了他的发言。④ I felt I had to pull her up on her lateness.我觉得我必须告诉他不要再迟到了。
(4) pull up亦可作"拉近""追上"解释。如:① Pull up a chair and sit here with us at this table. 拉张椅子过来和我们坐一张桌儿。② The boat pulled up alongside us.那条船赶上来与我们并行了。③ The second runner managed to pull up with the leading runner and finally won the race. 跑在第二的人设法赶上跑在最前面的人,并最终赢得了比赛。④ If you can pull up your English grammar,you will stand a good chance of succeeding in the examination. 如果你把英语语法赶上来,你就有希望在考试中取得成功。
15. In terms of technical development, people were going from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age. 就技术发展而言,人们正从石器时代过渡到青铜器时代。(p.76 Reading 第三段 第3行) ▲ in terms of 或 in...terms
(1)此处意为"用......的话""就......而言""根据......"。如:① In their terms, cutting government spending is the most important thing. 根据他们的意见,削减政府开支是最重要的事情。② In terms of inflation, the policy works. 就抑制通货膨胀而言,这个政策是有效的。③ The work is not very profitable in terms of cash, but I am getting valuable experience from it.就收入而言这工作赚不到多少钱,但我会从中学习到有价值的经验。④ His sugges- tions were expressed in terms that were readily understood and accepted. 他的建议的措词使人容易理解和接受。⑤ Our boss thinks of everything in terms of money.我们老板每件事都从钱的角度考虑。
(2) think in terms of意为"考虑(做某事)"。如: ① We are thinking in terms of moving to the south, as there are so few jobs in the north. 我们正考虑移居南方,因为北方的工作太少了。② I was thinking more in terms of buying than renting. 我更多考虑的是买而不是租。
拓展:in the long term 长远看来 (= for the longer future);in the short term在目前(= at the moment)
16. At first it was thought that the skills to make copper and bronze objects spread to Britain was through war and armed conflict,...起初,人们认为,用铜和青铜制造工具的技术是通过战争和武装冲突传播到英国的... (p.76 Reading 最后一段 倒数第11行) ▲ conflict
 (1) n. 冲突,战斗;争论,抵触 Armed conflict could start at any time. 战争随时都会发生。There is a possibility of a serious conflict in North America. 北美可能有严重的冲突。Some people feel there is a great deal of conflict between religion and science. 有些人认为宗教与科学之间有许多冲突。the familiar conflict between government and opposition 执政党与反对党之间司空见惯的争执
 (2) v. 冲突;争执;抵触 Do British laws conflict with any international laws? 英国法律与国际法有抵触吗? There is some research that conflicts with this view. 有一些研究与这种观点相抵触。
 拓展:come into conflict 与(某人)发生争执;bring somebody into conflict 使某人与......发生争执;in conflict with 与(某人)意见不一致;in conflict 有矛盾,不一致;Whites came more and more often into conflict with the islanders. 白人越来越频繁地与岛上的居民发生争执。The two men were brought into conflict by their jobs. 这两个人由于工作关系而发生了争执。John and Tom are in conflict with this. 约翰和汤姆在这一点上意见不一致。
17. The King of Stonehenge came with the skills to make metal, and that would have given him a high status in the eyes of local people. 巨石王带来了制造金属的技术这在当地人民的眼中被认为是出生高贵。(p.76 Reading 最后一段 倒数第7行)
 ▲ in the eyes of意为"据某人看来""在某人心目中",也可以说in sb.'s eyes或to sb.'s eyes或through the eyes of sb.。① Her children could do no wrong in her eyes.在她看来,她的孩子是不会做错事的。② In the eyes of law, it is an offence.在法律上,这是犯罪。③ In your mother's eyes, you are still a child.在你母亲眼里,你仍然是个孩子。④ Some customs in Africa seem rather strange in the eyes of the Europeans. 非洲的一些风俗在欧洲人看来相当奇怪。
18. It has been proved that the copper knives came from places as distant as Spain and western France. 事实已经证明,铜刀是来自西班牙或法国西部那么遥远的地方。(p.76 Reading 最后一段 倒数第4行)
 ▲ prove的一些用法
(1) prove在本课中是及物动词,意为"证明""证实".用于被动语态。如:① It has been proved that the practice can only do good.事实证明这样做只有好处。② His guilt was clearly proved.他的罪行被清楚地证实了。③ That has got to be proved by further experiment.那还有待进一步的实践来证实。④ It was soon proved that he was a guilty man.很快证实他就是罪犯。
 (2) prove作为及物动词时,可后接名词、代词、从句和复合结构。如:① We have proved our courage in battle. 我们已在战争中证实了自己的勇气。(接名词) ② Can you prove that to the court?你能向法庭证实那一点吗?(接代词) ③ Who can prove it? 谁能证实这一点呢?(接代词) ④ Look at these documents. They will prove that we are telling the truth.看看这些文件,它们可以证明我们讲的都是事实。(接从句) ⑤ Can you prove what you were doing at 9: 00 last night? 你能证明昨天晚上九点钟你在干什么吗? (接从句) ⑥ Time would prove me right.时间会证明我是对的。(接复合结构,形容词作宾补) ⑦ One mad action is not enough to prove a man mad.干一件疯事并不足以证明一个人就是疯子。(接复合结构,名词作宾补)
 (3) prove可作连系动词用,解释为"证明""结果是",后接形容词、副词、介词短语、名词或不定式to be。如:① The instrument has proved useful.这种仪器证明是有用的。(接形容词) ② He proved an honest friend.事实证明他是一个诚实的朋友。(接名词) ③ His effort, however, proved a failure. 他的努力结果都失败了。(接名词) ④ It will prove of little use.结果会证明,它没有什么用。(接介词短语) ⑤ It has proved of great help in such training. 事实证明,在这类训练中,它很有帮助。(接介词短语) ⑥ She may prove to be the most suitable person for the job.结果她可能是最适合干这工作的人。(接不定式to be) ⑦ It proved to be much more difficult than she had supposed.结果比她预想的要难得多。(接不定式to be)
Section III 词汇语法、综合技能
19. The ivory and animal bones that were found will serve as important materials for the study of ...所发现的象牙和兽骨将作为研究...的重要材料。(p. 79 Integrating Skill 第一段 第4行) ▲ serve as
(1) 意为"充当""担任""起...作用",也可以是serve for。如:① She served as a nurse in a hospital.他在医院里当护士。② He served three years as an officer.他在军队里当了三年军官。③ The frozen river serves as a road throughout the bitter winters.这条结冰的河流在严冬时当作道路使用。④ This temple served for an operating room during the Anti-Japanese War. 在抗战时期这座庙曾用来作手术室。⑤ This wooden box will have to serve for a table until the furniture arrives. 在家具运到前不得不把这个木箱当作桌子使用。
(2) serve的原意是"为......服务""服役"。如:① Weather forecasts serve farmers, ships mid airplanes. 天气预报为农民、船只和飞机服务。② He has served his time in the army.他在军队中已服役期满。③ The clerk served the firm for forty years.这个职员已在公司中工作了四十年。
(3) serve可作"招待(顾客)""侍候(吃饭)""端菜""供应"解释。① There was no one in the shop to serve me.店里没有一个人招待我。② We are well served with gas in this city.在这个城市我们有很好的煤气供应。③ Shall I serve the meat? 要我把肉端上来吗?④ She served us a very good dinner.她给我们做了一顿非常好的饭。
(4) serve有"符合""适合......使用"之意。如:① This dictionary will serve your purpose.这本词典符合你的需要。② That excuse will not serve you. 你的那个借口不能成立。③ My memory serves me well. 我的记性不错。④ It isn't good but it will serve me. 它不很好,但对我有用。
20. ... a gold mask and a bronze statue of a man remind visitors of the bronze masks and big bronze statues at Sanxindui... 一个金面具和一个青铜人物雕像使参观者想起了三星堆的青铜面具和大青铜像。(p. 79 Integrating Skill 第二段 第2行) ▲ remind sb. of sth.
(1) remind sb. of sth. 意为"使人想起..."。如:① Thanks for your gift - it will always remind me of you. 谢谢你的礼物--它将使我经常想到你。② This reminded them of the days when they were in the army. 这使他们想起在部队的日子。③ What does the picture remind you of? 这照片使你想起了什么? ④ You remind me so much of your brother, especially when you smile. 你真像你的哥哥,尤其是在你微笑时。
 (2) remind可作"提醒某人"解释,可以跟of或about短语,也可以跟不定式复合结构。① Please remind me to answer that letter. 请提醒我回复那封信。② Be sure to remind her to come back early. 一定要提醒她早点回来。③ In case I forget, please remind me about it.我要是忘了,请提醒我。④ I reminded Xiao Li of his promise.我向小李提起他答应过的事。
(3) remind后可跟从句。① May I remind you that time will soon be off? 请允许我提醒你,时间快到了。② The sight of the clock reminded me that I was late.看到了钟提醒了我,我迟到了。③ That reminds me that I have a meeting to attend this evening. 这使我想起今晚我还有一个会议要参加。④ I had to remind myself that being confident is not the same as being perfect.我不得不使自己注意,表现得自信并不等于完美。
21. Before the discoveries, it was believed that Sichuan only had a history of about 2,300 years.在这些发现之前,人们认为四川省只有2300年的历史。(p. 79 Integrating Skill 第三段 第1行)
▲ it was believed句型很常见,是一个以it作形式主语,真正的主语是一个从句放在句末,动词通常是表示思考、建议,要求,报道等意义的词。现小结如下:
It is thought that... 据认为......
It is proved that... 据证明......
It is known that... 众所周知......
It is suggested that... 据建议......
It is believed that... 据信......
It is reported that... 据报道......
It is announced that... 据宣布......
It is said that... 据说......
It is requested that... 据要求......
It is demanded that... 据要求......
① It was reported that half a million workers were on strike in their country. 据报道他的国家有五十万工人罢工。② It has been announced that their country will send up another man-made satellite next month.据宣布他们的国家将在下月再发射一颗人造地球卫星。③ It has been decided that the sports meet will be put off till next Thursday. 据决定运动会推迟到下周四召开。④ It is suggested that they set out tomorrow. 据建议,他们明天出发。⑤ It was demanded that the working conditions be improved as soon as possible. 据要求工作条件要尽可能快地改进。⑥ It is required that we work eight hours a day.我们要求一天工作八小时。
 【注】在动词require,demand,suggest,order等后的that从句中,谓语动词用原形或"should + 动词原形",这是虚拟语气的一种形式,如例句④⑤⑥。
22. ... when his son dug up a round piece of jade.他的儿子挖得了一块圆形玉石。(p. 79 Integrating Skill 第四段 第2行) ▲dig up
(1) dig up意思是"挖出""挖掘""翻挖"。如:① They dug up an old Greek statue.他们挖掘到一尊希腊雕像。② They are digging up the road behind the park.他们正在挖掘公园后面的那条路。③ These relics were dug up last year. 这些文物是去年出土的。④ The archaeologists have dug up some interesting remains. 考古学家挖掘出一些有趣的古物。
(2) dig up可引申为"找出""翻出"之意。① It's a lovely picture. Where did you dig it up? 这张画很好玩,你在哪儿找出来的? ② His description fits perfectly the evidence dug up by Henry. 他的叙述与亨利找出的证据完全吻合。 ③ The fact is true, but where did you dig it up? 那事实不假,但你是在哪里发现的?
23. ...but none of them could say in which dynasty the jade objects were made. 但是没有一人能说出这些玉器是产自哪个朝代。(p. 79 Integrating Skill 第四段 第3行) ▲ none
 (1) none主要用作代词,在这里表示"没有人"。如:① None of them could speak French. 他们谁也不会讲法语。② A friend to all is a friend to none. 和谁都是朋友的人和谁都不是真朋友。③ None of her children has blond hair. 她的孩子没有一个是金发的。④ None of the passengers were aware of the danger. 旅客中无人觉察到险情。
 (2) none也可以指物或动物,表示"没有一个"。① I like none of the books. 这些书我全不喜欢。② None of the rooms are ready. 房间一个也没准备好。③ "How many fish do you catch?" "None." "你捕到多少鱼?""一条也没捕到。"
 【注】none常用在"none + of + 名词"结构中,而nobody, no one或nothing不能用于这种结构中。例如我们可以说None of the pens are / is his. 没有一支钢笔是他的,但不能说No one of the pens is his.。
 (3) none用作主语时,谓语动词既可用单数,也可用复数表示"所有的都不"时动词用复数形式。如:① None of us are perfect. 我们都不是完人。② None of the answers are right. 所有的答案都错了。
 (4) 若表示"其中一个也不"时,谓语动词用单数形式。如:① None of his friends has been to London.他的朋友中没有一个去过伦敦的。② None of them has any great ability. 他们中间没有一个有大本事。
 【注】但在很多情况下单复数的界限并不十分清楚,故常常用单数或复数均可。如: None of the telephones is / are working. 电话机都坏了。
【注】none of后接的名词是限定性的。如: ① We saw none of the students whom we discussed earlier. 我们早先讨论过的学生,一个也没见到。② We drank none of the wine that you brought. 你带来的酒我们一点儿也没喝若是非限定性的,则应用"no + 名词"。如:① We saw no students. 我们没有看到学生。② We drank no wine. 我们没喝酒。
【注】另外当none代表"no + 名词"时,不可用no,nobody或nothing代替。如:① She has a tape-recorder, but I have none (= no tape-recorder). 她有一台录音机,但我却没有。② Tom has a lot of friends, but Jim has none (=no friends). 汤姆有许多朋友,但吉姆没有朋友。
▲ none有时可指不可数的东西,表示"一点儿都没有"。如:① "How much petrol is there in the car?" "None". "车里还有多少油?""一点都没有了。" ② I wanted some more coffee, but there was none left. 我想再喝点儿咖啡,但一点儿都不剩了。
24. Yan Kaizong accompanied his grandfather when he gave the relics from the ruins to the state. 严开中陪同他的祖父把从遗址发现的这些文物上交国家。(p. 79 Integrating Skill 第四段 第4行) ▲ accompany
 (1) vt. 陪伴,陪同He accompanied a foreign visitor to the airport(station).他送外宾去机场(车站)。Let me accompany you to your hotel.让我陪你去旅馆。
 (2) vt. 为......伴奏The well-known singer was accompanied at the piano by comrade Wang. 王同志为那位著名的歌唱家担任钢琴伴奏。
 翻译:坐在这儿陪我一会儿。
 [误] Sit here and accompany me for a while.
 [正] Sit here and keep me company for a while.
 注意:keep sb. company才表示"陪伴",和某人作伴的意思,而accompany表示"陪同......去" 的意思。
 [误] Our teacher accompanied us to go to the park.
 [正] Our teacher accompanied us to the park.
 我们的老师陪我们一同去了公园。
25. The Sanxingdui Ruins Site covers a vast 12 square kilometres. 三星堆遗址占地面积广阔,约有十二平方公里。(p. 79 Integrating Skill 倒数第一段 第4行)
▲ cover
 (1) cover此处意为"占地""包括(多大范围)"。如:① The city covers an area of ten square miles.该城面积为十平方英里。② His burnt area covered 70 percent of his body surface.他的烧伤面积达到全身的百分之七十。③ China stretches across a vast area covering the cold, temperate and tropical zones.中国幅员辽阔,包括寒带、温带和热带。
(2) cover的原意是"覆盖""布满"之意。如:① Water covers nearly third quarters of the earth's surface.水大约覆盖了地球表面的四分之三。② The mountain was covered with snow all the year round. 这座山一年到头都被白雪覆盖着。③ We covered the machine-gun with branches to hide it from view.我们用树枝把机枪掩盖起来,不让人看见。
(3) cover还有"走......路""看完......书""花......费用"之意。如:① My Car covered 100 miles in an hour. 我的汽车一小时开了一百英里。② Will 150 dollars cover the cost of a new bike? 一百元够不够买辆新自行车?③ How many pages have you covered today? 你今天看了多少页书? ④ Fifty dollars will cover my need for the journey. 有五十元就够付这次的旅费了。
(4) cover亦可作"掩护""控制"解释。如:① Two police- men covered the back door and two covered the front.两名警察控制住后门,两名控制前门。 ② Our task was to cover the units that were going to take the hill. 我们的任务是掩护要攻占高地的部队。 ③ While we covered him he crawled forward and find at the enemy. 在我们的掩护下,他匍匐前进,并向敌人射击。
 (5) cover还有"谈到""涉及"之意。如:① The talks are expected to cover other topics. 会谈估计还会涉及别的问题。② This dictionary does not cover all the English verbs. 这本词典不包括英语的全部动词。③ Their studies cover a wide field. 他们的研究范围很广。
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