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2011届高考英语第一轮复习导学案精品(人教选修六) doc预览

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选修六
Unit1 Art
一、语言要点
I单元要点预览(旨在让同学整体了解本单元要点)
词汇
部分 词语
辨析 1.possess/own/have 2. technique/technology 3. shadow/shade 词形
变化 1. consequence n.结果 consequent adj. 作为结果的, consequently adv. 从而, 因此 2. possess v. 占有, 拥有 possession n. 拥有, 占有, 所有 3.faith n. 信任, 信念, faithful adj. 守信的, 忠实的, faithfully adv. 忠诚地, 如实地 4. technique n. 技术, 技巧, 方法, technician n. 技术员, 技师 technology n. 工艺, 科技, 技术 5.aggressive adj. 敢作敢为的, 侵略性的 aggress v. 攻击, 侵犯 aggression n. 进攻, 侵略 重点
单词 1. faith n.信仰;信任;信心
2. aim n. 目标;目的;瞄准vi.&vt.瞄准(向某方向)努力
3. typical adj. 典型的, 象征性的
4. adopt vt. 采用, 收养
5. convince vt. 使确信;使信服
6. attempt n. 努力;尝试;企图vt.尝试;企图
7. predict vt.预言;预告;预测 重点
词组 a great deal大量 by coincidence巧合地 on the other hand另一方面
in the flesh活着的;本人 in (the) possession of拥有(属于)
in consequence因此,结果 appeal to(对某人)有吸引力;  重点句子 1. But it was evident that ideas were changing in the 13th century when painters like Giotto di Bondone began to paint religious scenes in a more realistic way.
2. they tried to paint people and nature as they really were.
3. among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting were the Impressionists. 重点语法 虚拟语气(I)(见语法专题) II 词语辨析 (旨在提供完形填空所需材料)
1). possess/own/have vt.占有, 拥有, 【解释】
possess较为正式,强调对目前拥有或占有的东西可以控制或支配。也用于表示具有某种才能,品质特点或性能等。
own强调所属关系
have常用词,可指任何情况下的具有,包括物质的或精神的。 【练习】选择possess/own或have 并用其适当的形式填空
1) We ______ a dinner party on for tomorrow evening.
2) She ______ herself of the unclaimed goods.
3) Daisy _______ a chain of restaurants though still young. 拥有连锁餐厅
4) we all like to attend Professor Zhang's lecture because he _______ great tact.
Keys: 1) have 2) possessed 3) owns 4) possesses 2). technique/technology n.技术 【解释】
technique常指针对方法,技巧而言的"技术"尤其指音乐,艺术,写作的技能/。
technology常指工业或科学技术,是较为广泛的概念 【练习】选择technique或technology,并用其适当的形式填空
1) Science and ________ can strengthen a nation.
2) The actor has the ________ of amusing the audience.
3) The use of __________ of metals brought a great fortune to the local people.
Keys: 1) technology 2) technique 3) technology 3) shadow/shade n.阴影 【解释】
shadow [C] 指人或东西在阳光或灯光下形成的影子。
shade [U] 指任何遮住阳光得到的阴凉的地方。 【练习】选择shadow或shade并用其适当的形式填空
1) Sometimes people will get frightened by his own ______ especially at night.
2) After a long walk, they needed to find some ______ and have a rest.
Keys: 1) shadow 2) shade III 词性变化 (旨在提供语法填空所需材料)
1. consequence n.结果 consequent adj. 作为结果的, consequently adv. 从而, 因此 2. possess v. 占有, 拥有 possession n. 拥有, 占有, 所有 3.faith n. 信任, 信念, faithful adj. 守信的, 忠实的, faithfully adv. 忠诚地, 如实地 4. technique n. 技术, 技巧, 方法, technician n. 技术员, 技师 technology n. 工艺, 科技, 技术 5.aggressive adj. 敢作敢为的, 侵略性的 aggress v. 攻击, 侵犯 aggression n. 进攻, 侵略 6.prdict v. 预知, 预言, 预报 prediction n. 预言, 预报 predictive adj. 预言性的, 成为前兆的 【练习】根据句子结构,用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空
1) Sometimes we are _________ by the desire to be rich and do everything we could to make the dream come true, but finally we will find out that the _______ of wealth may not necessarily bring happiness.(possess)
2) The bad weather and the ________ confusion of traffic made it impossible for schools to operate as usual. _________, most of the students were taken back home by their parents.(consequence)
3) The man rushed into the manager's office ________ and asked for a refund.(aggress)
4) An automotive ________ coming from U.S.A is ready to help us in science and _________ .(technique)
5) A ________ employee would not like to leave his boss though the company had been bankrupted.(faith)
6) With the development of meteorology (气象学), people make it ________to know the weather in advance.(predict)
keys:1) possessed; possession 2) consequent; Consequently 3) aggressively 4) technician; technology 5)faithful
6) predictive IV 重点词汇 (旨在提供综合运用所需材料)
1. faith n.信仰;信任;信心
[重点用法]
have faith in sb./sth.对某人/某事有信心
lose faith in 不再信任,对...失去信心
be faithful to sb. [sth.] 忠实于某人[某事]
faithful adj.忠实的
faithfully adv.忠实地
[典例]
1) Having faith in the masses is the requirement by government.相信群众是对政府的要求。
2) Under no circumstance shall we lost faith in the future.在任何情况下,我们都不该对未来失去信心。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 他对我的能力很有信心。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 虽然只是一个小挫折,却让露丝对成功失去了信心。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)He has faith in my ability. 2) Though it's only a small frustration, it made Rose lose faith in success.

2. aim n. 目标;目的;瞄准vi.&vt.瞄准(向某方向)努力
[重点用法]
take aim (at) 瞄准
aim at向...瞄准;旨在,针对;志在
aim high胸 怀大志; 力争上游
[典例]
1) What is your aim in life?你生活的目的是什么?
2) He aimed the gun at the enemy officer.他用枪瞄准了敌军官。
3) Our factory must aim at developing new models of machines.我们的工厂必须致力于研制新型机械。
[练习]根据句子的意思在横线上填人适当的词或词组。
1) This anti-smoking campaign mainly____ (针对)young teenagers.
2) The hunter____ (瞄准)the lion and fired
3) He ______ (力求)at accuracy.
4) He could not ________ (瞄准)straight.
5) He is leading a life without _____(目标,方向).
Keys:1)aims at 2)aimed at 3) aimed 4) aim 5) aims

3. typical adj. 典型的, 象征性的;不出所料;特有的
[重点用法]
be typical of...是...代表; 象征
[典例]
1) Xianglin shao is a typical character in Leiyu典型人物
2) grasp typical cases抓典型
3) It's typical of her to be late.她这个人就是爱迟到。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 抢挑重担是他的特点。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 温暖,潮湿的气候在南方很典型。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) It is typical of him to take hard jobs . 2) Warm and wet weather is very typical in south China.

4. adopt vt. 采用,采纳; 收养
[重点用法]
adoption n.采用;收养
形近词:adapt v. 使适应, 改编
adaptation n. 适应, 改编, 改写本
[典例]
1) In the meeting, all the works agreed to adopt a new idea to reform the factory.
会议中所有员工都同意采纳新意见以改革工厂.
2) Many new couple are eager to adopt the children losing their parents in the earthquake.
许多新夫妇都期望可以收养在地震中失去双亲的孩子.
[练习] 汉译英
1)健康而没有孩子的夫妇依法可以收养一个小孩。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2)这部影片是为了孩子们从一本很受欢迎的小说改编而来
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) The healthy couple without children can adopt a child by law. 2) The film was adapted from the popular novel for children.

5. convince vt. 使确信;使信服
[重点用法]
convince sb. of sth.使某人相信某事
convince sb to do sth说服某人做某事
be convinced of sth相信某事
be convinced that+从句相信某事
[典例]
1) He was convinced of his error. 他认识了错误
2) He convinced me that I should study law.他劝我应该学法律。
3) It took many hours to convince the court of his guilt.花费了许多个小时法庭才相信他有罪。
4) We convinced Anne to go by train rather than plane. 我们说服了安妮放弃乘飞机而坐火车走。
【高考考例分析】
To catch up with the times, we must keep ourselves __________of the current news.
A. warned B. informed C. convinced D. accused
[解析] 本题考查四个动词的含义,这四个词都可以与of搭配, warn sb. of sth.警告某人某事,inform sb. of sth.通知某人某事,convince sb. of sth.说服某人相信某事,accuse sb. of sth.指控某人某事。本句译为:为了跟上时代,我们必须使自己知道当前的新闻。
[答案] B
[练习]根据句子的意思在横线上填入适当词或词组。
1) He_____ me ____ his innocence.
2) After his discussion, I ______ that I was wrong.
3) It is no use trying ________ him to quit smoking.
Keys: 1)convinced...of 2)was convinced 3)to convince

6. attempt n. 努力;尝试;企图vt.尝试;企图
[重点用法]
attempt sth.试图做......; 努力去执行(完成)某事
attempt to do企图做某事
make an attempt at sth/to do sth.企图做某事
[典例]
1) The prisoners attempted an escape, but failed. 囚犯企图逃跑,但是失败了
2) An astronaut will attempt to leave the stationary spaceship and then return to it.
一名宇航员将试着离开停着的宇宙飞船,然后再回到里面去。
3) The boys made an attempt to leave for camping but were stopped by their parents.
男孩子们想去野营但被他们的父母们拦住了。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 我试图与她取得联系。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 他无意进行这件事情。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) I attempted to get in touch with her. 2) He made no attempt to carry it out.

7. predict vt.预言;预告;预测(侧重从已知的事实推断或根据自然规律断定未来的事情。
[重点用法]
predict sth.
predict that
prediction n. 预言, 预报
[典例]
1) An eclipse could be predicted in ancient days.很久以前就可以预报日(月)蚀了。
2) His teacher predicted that he could be a CEO of a company because of his intelligence and diligence.
 因为他的聪明和勤奋,他老师预测他以后有可能成为公司的总裁。
3) Do you take seriously his prediction of a government defeat?他预言政府要挫败,你认为这话靠得住吗?
[练习] 汉译英
1) 观察员预测加沙地区形势最起码会持续一个月。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 预告明天有雨
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)The observer predicted that the situation in Gaza will last at least a month.
2) It predicts rain for tomorrow.
V 重点词组 (旨在提供综合运用所需材料)
1. a great deal大量
[典例]
1) Thanks a great deal for your help with our work.非常感谢你给我们工作上的帮助。
2) A great deal of money was used in rescuing the victims in wenchuan earthquake.
大量的金钱被用于援救汶川地震中的受害者。
[短语归纳] 表示"许多,大量"
a great deal of/a good deal of/a large amount of/much/not a little可用于修饰不可数名词
a few/quite a few/a good many/a great many/a great number of可用于修饰可数名词
a lot of/a large quantity of/large quantities of/plenty of 既可修饰可数名词又可以修饰不可数名词
[练习] 汉译英
1) 我还有许多事情需要处理。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 大量充足的雨水带来了丰收。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3) 许多孩子在这次可怕的事故中失去了双亲。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)I have a number of things to do.
2)Plenty of rain resulted in the harvest of crop.
3)Great numbers of children lost their parents in the terrible accident.

2. by coincidence巧合地
[典例]
1) By coincidence, we will take the same bus back home.真巧合,我们要搭同趟车回家。
2) By coincidence, his wife is one of my classmate in college.巧合的是他的妻子是我大学的一个同学。
[短语归纳]
by accident 碰巧,偶然
by chance碰巧,偶然
on purpose故意
[练习] 汉译英
1) 在北京参加会议时,我碰巧遇上多年未见的同学。
2) 退休后,一个偶然的机会他喜欢上慢跑。
Keys: 1)When I attended a meeting in Beijing, I met my old classmate never seen for long time by chance.
2)He took up jogging after his retire by accident.

3. on the other hand另一方面
[典例]
1) If you want to improve your ability, on the one hand, you should attend some related lectures; on the
other hand, you should learn something useful from workers around you.
[练习]翻译句子
1) 他决定辞职。一方面因为他厌倦了目前的工作;另方面他想换个地方。
2) 出于自尊,她拒绝了他的帮助,另方面她不想欠别人的人情。
Keys: 1) He decided to quit. On the one hand, he was tired of the present job; on the other hand, he wanted to move to another place. 2) She refused his help with dignity; on the other hand, she didn't want to owe others.

4. in the flesh活着的;本人
[典例]
1) In the performance, you can see your idols in the flesh.表演中,你可以亲眼看到你的偶像。
2) His appearance in the flesh ended the rumours about his death.他本人的出现打破了他人已经死去的谣言。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 当使用信用卡时,需要你的本人签名。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 他是活着的最受欢迎的学者。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) When using your credit card, you need to sign your name in the flesh.
2) He is the most popular scholar in the flesh.

5. in (the) possession of拥有(属于)
[典例]
1) They are still in possession of the house, so we have to wait for another time.他们依然拥有房子的产权,所以我们还得等待一段时间。
2) The factory is in the possession of one of my friend, who moved to Australia several years ago.这家工厂是属于我一个朋友的,几年前他搬到澳洲去了。
[短语归纳]
in one's possession由......掌握
in charge of负全责, 经管,
in the charge of由......负责,经营
take possession of占有,拥有
take charge of 负责,看管
[练习] 汉译英
1) 我管理这家公司,也就是这家公司由我管理。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 我所掌握的消息是严格保密的。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) I am in charge of the company. That is, the company is in the charge of me.
2) The information in my possession is strictly confidential.

6. in consequence因此,结果
[典例]
1) He got a bad cough. In consequence, he had to ask a doctor for help.
2) He had to ask a doctor for help in consequence of his bad cough.
他咳得很厉害,因此,他不得不去看医生。
[短语归纳]
in consequence of... 的结果, 因为...的缘故, 由于
as a consequence因而, 结果
[练习] 汉译英
1) 雨很大,结果街道变成一片汪洋。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 因为他付出的努力,他取得了非凡的成就。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) It rained heavily. As a consequence, the streets were in flood.
2) He got a marvelous achievement in consequence of his great effort.

7. appeal to(对某人)有吸引力;向...呼吁[请求]
[典例]
Bright colours appeal to small children. 小孩喜欢鲜艳的颜色。
We are appealing to anyone who saw the suspect to contact us.
我们恳请任何人看到嫌疑犯后与我们联系。
[短语归纳]
appeal to sb. for为...向某人呼吁[请求]
appeal for aid请求援助
appeal for mercy [sympathy] 请求宽恕[同情]
appeal to arms [force] 诉诸武力
[练习] 汉译英
1) 政府呼吁市民节约用水。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 意识到自己的错误,这个犯人请求宽恕。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) The government appealed to citizens for saving water.
2) Realizing his mistakes, the criminal appealed for mercy.
VI 重点句子 (旨在提供句子结构等所需材料)
1. But it was evident that ideas were changing in the 13th century when painters like Giotto di Bondone
began to paint religious scenes in a more realistic way.
但是,很显然在13世纪时(人们的)思想正经历着变化,像乔托这样的画家开始以一种较为现实的风格来画宗教场景。
[解释] It is evident that...(很)显然... "it"在句中充当形式主语,"that"引导的主语从句为真正的主语。为了
句子的平衡移到后面,可以避免句子结构的头重脚轻.
[典例]It's evident that the plan is impracticable. 很明显这计划是不能实现的。
It was evident that the couple's still love for each other. 很显然这对夫妇依然爱着对方。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 很显然,在警察赶到前犯罪现场经过了伪造。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 很明显政府正试图帮助大学生就业。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)It was evident that the accident spot had been counterfeited (伪造)before the traffic policeman came.
2) It is evident that the local government is trying to help the graduates with employment.

2. They tried to paint people and nature as they really were.他们试图真实地描绘人物与自然。
[解释] as 1) conj. (1)如,像;按照...... (2)当...时候,一面...一面...;随着... (3)因为,既然 (4)尽管
2) prep. 作为,如同
[典例]
1) The work is not so easy as you imagine.这项工作并没你想象的那么容易。
2) Everything goes as I expected.事情正如我期望那样进行着。
3) As day goes by, the boy became more patient with his girlfriend.
随着日子的流逝,男孩对女朋友越来越有耐心了。
4) They sang songs as they were doing farm work.他们一边干农活一边唱歌。
5) As he still a child, he lived in a remote village with his old granny.
他小的时候和他的祖母生活 在一个遥远的村庄里。
6) As everything is ready, let's go.既然都准备好了,我们出发吧。
7) Ridiculous as it seems, the tale is true. 。这个故事看似荒唐,却是真的
8) As a work of art it is very poor. 作为艺术品这是十分拙劣的。
9) As your good friend, I had to give you the kindest advice.
作为你的好朋友,我得给你我最善意的忠告。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 随着你年龄的增长, 你会变得更聪明。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) (既然)你累了, 最好休息一下。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3) 他虽然尽了最大努力, 仍不能搬动那块石头。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
4) 作为一个诚实的孩子,你应该向父母说出事实.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)You will grow wiser As you grow older.
2) As you are tired, you had better rest.
3)Try As he would, he could not lift the rock. 4) As an honest child, you should tell the truth to your parents.

3. Among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting were the Impressionists.
突破传统绘画风格的画家中包括了印象派画家。
[解释] 本句为倒装句,原语序为:
The Impressionists were among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting.
本句结构为"介词短语+连系动词+主语"(倒装语序)
在英语语法中,当介词短语/形容词/分词提到连系动词前面时,句子要求采用全部倒装。构成"介词短语/
形容词/分词+连系动词+主语 "(倒装语序)全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。
[注意]
此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般过去时
[典例]
1) Growing around the garden are different kinds of flowers.花园里开满了五颜六色的花。
2) Near the window is a sad mother.窗户的旁边是一位悲伤的母亲。
[练习] 汉译英
1)出席英语晚会的有我们喜欢的英语老师。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2)农民生活中很重要的一件事情就是看中央电视台新闻。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1).Also present at the evening party was our favorable English teacher.
2)Very important in the farmers' life is the CCTV news.
二、课文要点
1课文词汇等填空(旨在复习本课文中的单词拼写和主要词语等)
根据课文内容完成下面语法填空,注意单词拼写和词语用法:
Western art is 1 (影响)by the way of life and 2 (believe) of people. During the Middle Ages the main aim of painters was to represent 3 (传统的)themes. Artists were interested in 4 (create) respect and love for God. In the Renaissance new ideas and values took the place of those 5 (hold)in the Middle Ages when people focused more on humans. One of the most important 6 (discover) during this period was how to draw things in perspective. In the late 19th, Europe changed from a mostly 7 (agriculture)society to a mostly industrial one. 8 (印象派) dated from the late 19th to the early 20th century. However, at first the paintings of this period were thought to be 9 (可笑的) . Then modern art, the painter does not attempt to paint objects as we see them with our eyes but concentrates 10 certain qualities of the object.
答案:1. influenced 2.beliefs 3.religious 4.creating 5.held
6.discoveries 7.agricultural 8.Impressionism 9.ridiculous 10.on
2课文大意概括 (旨在训练用30个单词概括大意的能力)
阅读课文,试着用30来个单词概括课文大意或翻译下面短文。
本文主要通过描述了开始形成于公元6世纪最重要的西方艺术风格,其中包括中世纪文艺复兴的印象派和现代艺术。
The passage mainly describes _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________

答案:The passage mainly describes the most important style of Western art which starts form the 6th century AD, including the Middle Ages the Renaissance, the Impressionism and Modern Art.
3课文佳句背诵与仿写 (旨在培养对难句的理解和运用能力)
1.【原句】Without the new paints and the new technique, we would not be able to see the many great masterpieces for which this period is famous.没有新的颜料和新的(绘画)手法,我们就不能看到很多使这一时代著名的杰作。
[模仿要点] 句子结构 without + N , 主句(用虚拟语气) + 介词+which 引导的定语从句
【模仿1】如果没有这项政策,并不是所有的孩子将能够上学接受家长无法支付教育的。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:Without the policy, not all the children would be able to go to school to receive the education for which their parents were not able to pay.
【模仿2】没有她及时的帮助,我们就不会完成我们负责的项目,。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:Without her timely help, we would not have finished the project for which we were responsible.

2.【原句】Among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting were the Impressionists, who lived and worked in Paris.在那些突破传统画法的画家中有生活和工作在巴黎的印象派画家。
[模仿要点] 句子结构:among(介词)位于句首的倒装句,+ which/who 引导非限制定语从句
【模仿1】在所有最有吸引力的城市中有湛江 ,它是最近被正式宣布为十大休闲城市之一。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:Among all the cities that are most attractive is Zhanjiang, which was recently officially declared one of the Top Ten Casual Cities in China.
【模仿2】在所有获得奖学金的学生中有杰克,他是来自贫困家庭,现在正在做兼职来维持自己。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:Among all the students who received the scholarships is Jack, who is from a poor family and now is doing a time to support himself.

3. 【原句】At the time they were created, the Impressionist paintings were controversial, but today they are accepted as the beginning of what we call "modern art".在印象派作品的创建初期,它们是存在着争议的,但是今天已被人们接受而成为现在我们所说的"现代艺术"的始祖。
[模仿要点] 句子结构:at the time 引导状语从句,主句1 + but + 主句2 + what 引导的宾语从句
【模仿1】在他们首次在互联网上使用时,因特网术语导致误解,但今天他们却被接受为青年人称为词汇的来源。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:At the time they were firstly used on the Internet, Internet Slang Terms led to misunderstanding, but today they are accepted as what young people call sources of vocabulary.
【模仿2】
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:At the time they graduated from high school in the past, all the students were confused whether to find a job or continue their schooling, but today they understand what is commonly accepted that education is only way out. 三、单元自测
1完形填空
阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从21-30各题所给的A、B、C和D项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
词数:202 完成时间:13分钟 难度:*** Like a cup of tea for a cough, a piece of ice for a sunburn may seem like the perfect remedy for millions of Americans who will spend a little too much time in the 21 this summer.
But many common home remedies seem less than 22 .The old ice-for-a-burn technique is no exception. It can help lessen some initial (最初的) pain, but in the end it will 23 the healing process.
That's proved in various studies to be simple treatments for 24 scalds(烫伤)and sunburns. In one study by Danish researchers, 24 healthy volunteers were inflicted(使遭受痛苦) with first-degree burns and 25 to different treatments. Those who received a cooling treatment similar to ice did not experience 26 pain or get worse compared with other treatments.
In another study in 1997, scientists 27 easing burns with ice cubes for 10 minutes with other 28 and found ice caused "the most severe damage". "Using an ice cube immediately after injury," the authors added, "is 29 in some instances."
According to the Mayo Clinic, putting ice on a burn can cause frostbite and damage the skin. For better results, try running cool water over the area and taking a 30 reliever. Most minor burns heal without further treatment, the clinic says.
21. A. sun B. moon C. water D. country
22. A. helpless B. helpful C. harmful . D. convenient
23. A. slow B. quicken C. cause D. fail
24. A. accidental B. regular C. serious D. minor
25. A. agreed B. adapted C. subjected D. objected
26. A. worsened B. received C. increased D. reduced
27. A. differed B. combined C. compared D. dealt
28. A: people B. remedies C. objects D. scientists
29. A. useful B. harmful C. available D. necessary
30. A. pain B. spirit C. mind D. skin
答案:
21. A. 根据本段前面提到的sunburn"晒斑",可知这里指的是在夏天晒太阳。
22. B. 后面一句说:它可以缓解最初的伤痛,但是......,由此可知这些常见家庭疗法并非很有用。
23. A. (参见注释22)到后来,这种"冰疗法"的愈合速度就会减慢。
24. D. 这种疗法只能对轻伤作简单的处理。可根据上一段最后一句以及后面的内容得知。
25. C. subject to"使服从(不同的治疗)",注意前面省略了被动语态的助动词were。
26. D. 那些接受冷却疗法的人既没有减少痛苦,也没有增加痛苦。说明效果不明显。
27. C. 根据后面的with other remedies可知,医疗工作者们将用冰进行的冷却疗法与其他疗法作比较。
28. B. 参见注释27。
29. B. 前一句说"ice caused 'the most severe damage'",可知它有时是"有害的"harmful。
30. A. 用冷水冲被烧伤或烫伤的地方,可以缓解疼痛。
2语法填空
阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填入一个适当的词或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空,并将答案填写在答题卡标号为31-40的相应位置上。
词数:214 完成时间:10分钟 难度:*** Welcome to our company, everybody. This time our company has 11 college students 31 (work) in 5 departments .I am Luisa ,Director in charge of the student practice.
Let me say something to you all. Starting work can be exciting on one hand , and can also 32 (worry) on the other. No matter 33 your future job is, you will have to work with others. Learning to get on well with others must come first, 34 (include) all people in the company and our customers. And second, this morning right 35 my introduction, spend some time reading the introduction of the company and get to know the people in your office and find out what our company is like .This afternoon you can walk around our workshops and know 36 about the products. 37 one is allowed to leave the company before 5:30. By the way, lunchtime comes at 11:50 and it's free of charge.
Remember this: "Learning is so important 38 it will change your future life . "Our company can answer your real learning 39 you can make up your mind to go through with it. This is what I like to say to you at the moment. If you still have 40 questions, please come to my office .Thank you.
答案:
31.working 32.be worrying 33.What 34.including 35.after 36.more 37.No 38.that 39.if 40.any
31.working,现在分词短语working in 5 departments作后置定语,修饰11 college students。
32.be worrying,"令人担忧的/令人焦虑的",由also可知,and连接be exciting和be worrying,表并列关系。
33.what ,从前后关系可知"无论你将来的工作是什么;",所以此处no matter what是最佳答案。
34.including,介词,"包括"。
35.after.表"我的介绍之后,今天上午的其他安排。
36.more,从前文可知此处表更进一步了解产。
37.No, No one is allowed to leave...表任何人不允许离开......。
38.that,考查so...that...的结构。
39. if,表假设关系。
40.any表"任何......"
3阅读理解
阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
词数:352 完成时间:7分钟 难度:*** It is always hard for a small fish to live in a big pond. Pluto's recent departure from the classical planet family clearly proves that size really matters.
Astronomers voted on August 24 to create the first scientific definition of the word "planet ", and Pluto obviously didn't make the cut. It turned out to be only a "dwarf planet (矮行星) ".
After weeks of heated debate, over 2, 500 astronomers from 75 countries voted on the definition of a "planet" at a conference of the International Astronomical Union ( IAU ). According to the definition, a planet must have a clear neighbourhood around its orbit. Pluto has widely been considered a planet since its discovery in 1930. Unfortunately, it has a special orbit which overlaps with Neptune's. It is all because, compared with Neptune, Pluto is very small. It is attracted by Neptune's gravity when the two planets get closer.
According to IAU, a "dwarf planet" should have an orbit around the Sun. It will not have a clear neighborhood around its orbit, and must not be a satellite. The new classification means that the science textbooks will have to be updated.
The solar system is now made up of the eight "classical planets," together with a number of dwarf planets. The classical planets are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
The debate over Pluto's status started in 1992. After an advanced telescope was sent into space, astronomers started to find a belt of objects, which lies beyond Neptune. The belt contains nearly 1,000 objects, including Pluto. As they continued the exploration, scientists recently discovered at least 41 dwarf planets at the edges of the solar system. There are at least two objects of a similar size to Pluto.
It seems that even if the IAU had kept Pluto's status as a planet, the classical theory of nine planets in the solar system would have had to be changed, but the other way around. More dwarf planets of a similar size to Pluto would join the family of planets. Scientists will probably find many more dwarf planets.
41. The main purpose of the text is to ____________.
A. prove to the readers that size matters
B. tell readers about a big change of the planets
C. explain the classical theory of planets
D. inform us of science textbooks being updated
42. We can infer from the text that _____________.
A. eight planets make up the solar system
B. it has been hard for scientists to define a "planet"
C. Mars is very hot and you can't go near it
D. Pluto shares the same orbit with Neptune
43. Scientists argued about Pluto's status for a long time because _____________.
A. Pluto was first discovered in 1930
B. the family of planets is too big
C. Pluto is located beyond Neptune
D. many dwarf planets, like Pluto, were found
44. The reason for Pluto's departure is that ____________.
A. Pluto does not fit the definition of a "planet"
B. Pluto cannot compete with other planets
C. Pluto is attracted by Neptune's gravity
D. other objects of its size have been discovered
45. The best title of the text is _____________.
A. An Unexpected Result
B. Eight Planets
C. Goodbye Pluto
D. New Scientific Definition
答案:
41.答案是B.考查意图推断。本文是一则新闻报道,从文章第二段可知冥王星从9大行星中被降级了,后面各段是解释原因及有关它的情况。
42.答案是B.考查推理判断。从文章第三段可推知。
43.答案是D.考查细节理解。从文章最后两段可知。
44.答案是A. 考查原因推断。从文章第三、四段可知。
45.答案是C考查主旨理解:全文的中心就是冥王星从9大行星中被降级了,并对此解释原因,故C项最能体现文章的主题。

4写作训练
请根据以下所提供的内容,写一篇议论文,题目为"How to Make Friends"。
要点如下:
1.要到有人的地方,与人交谈。
2.与陌生人交谈时不要紧张。
3.与人交朋友要有自信, 主动与人攀谈。
4.友谊是建立在互相信赖的基础上的。
5.培养自己广泛的兴趣,因为兴趣广泛的人交友容易。
(写作要求)
1.必须使用5个句子介绍全部所给的内容。
2.将5个句子组织成连贯的一篇短文。
3.使用必要的连接词。
4.短文的第一句和结束句已给出,不计人句子总数。
How to Make Friends
Making friends is a skill.If you do as l tell you,I'm sure you can make friends with others.

____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
答案:
How to Make Friends
Making friends is a skill. If you want to meet people and make friends, you must first go where there are people, for staying home alone won't have any chances of making friends.
Some people are nervous when talking to strangers, so try to act self-confidently when you want to make friends with others. Don't wait for others to start a conversation with you when you feel like talking with them. Friendship is based on mutual liking and "give and take". You should also develop different interests in your daily life, for a person with different interests is easy to make friends with others. If you do as I tell you, I'm sure you can make friends with others.





Unit 2 Poems
一、语言要点
I单元要点预览(旨在让同学整体了解本单元要点)
词汇
部分 词语
辨析 1.poem/poetry 2.transform/change 3.appropriate/suitable/fit
4. run out/run out of 词形
变化 1. sorrow n. 悲哀, 悲痛 sorrowful adj. 悲伤的 2. anger n. 怒, 愤怒 angry adj. 生气的, 愤怒的 angrily adv. 愤怒地 3. translate v. 翻译, 转变为 translation n. 翻译, 译文 translator n. 翻译者 4. ending n. 结尾, 结局 end v. 结束, 终结, end n.末端, 尽头 重点
单词 1. aspect n.方面;样子;外表
2. convey v.传达;运送
3. concrete adj.具体的
4. tease v.取笑;招惹;戏弄
5. pattern n.模式;式样;图案
6. underline v.在下面画线;强调
7. exchange v.交换,交流
8. sponsor n.赞助人;主办者 vt.发起,举办,倡议 重点
词组 take it easy从容, 不紧张, 松懈, 轻松 make up of(多用于被动)构成
try out 试验, 考验, let out发出, 泄露  重点句子 1.Some poems tell a story or describe something in a way that will give the reader a strong impression. Others try to convey certain emotions.
2. And said though strange they all were true. 重点语法 虚拟语气(II)(见语法专题) II 词语辨析 (旨在提供完形填空所需材料)
1). poem/poetry n. 诗歌 【解释】
poem[C]诗歌,诗体文
poetry[U]诗歌的总称 【练习】选择poem或poetry并用其适当的形式填空
1) Keats and Shakespeare are masters of English ______.
2) People write _________ to make other laugh.
Keys: 1) poetry 2) poems 2). transform/change v.改变,变化 【解释】
transform指"人、物在性质上或形态上发生彻底或基本的变化"
change指"使改变得与原物不同"或"使发生以新代旧的变化" 【练习】选择 transform或change,并用其适当的形式填空
1) Heat can __________ water into steam.
2) The appearance of the town is quite ________.
Keys: 1) transform 2) changed 3) appropriate/suitable/fit adj.合适的,适当的 【解释】
appropriate 形容事物在特定的时间合适,或与特定场合协调一致。
suitable适合于某一特定目的或场合,正确的。(常可与appropriate互换)
fit指适合于某工作或用途等 【练习】选择appropriate/suitable或fit并用其适当的形式填空
1) Parents are warned not to buy books not ________ for their children.
2) Such a ship is _______ for a calm sea only.
3) I think this is an _________ moment to raise the question of my promotion.
4) She picked up a dress ________ for the occasion.
Keys: 1) suitable 2) fit 3) appropriate 4) appropriate/suitable 4) run out/run out of用完 【解释】
run out不及物短语=be used up
run out of及物短语=use up 【练习】
1) Half of a month later, our supplies finally _______.
2) After a long distance driving, we ________ petrol.
Keys: 1) ran out 2) ran out of III 词性变化 (旨在提供语法填空所需材料)
1. sorrow n. 悲哀, 悲痛 sorrowful adj. 悲伤的 2. anger n. 怒, 愤怒 angry adj. 生气的, 愤怒的 angrily adv. 愤怒地 3. translate v. 翻译, 转变为 translation n. 翻译, 译文 translator n. 翻译者 4. ending n. 结尾, 结局 end v. 结束, 终结, end n.末端, 尽头 【练习】根据句子结构,用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空
1) The whole country mourned the death in Wencuan earthquake in great_______. It was unbearable to see the _______ eyes of the mourning people.(sorrow)
2) In order to bring in advanced thought of education from foreign country, he decided to be a ______ and has ________ hundreds of books from English into Chinese so far. His ________of some great works is popular among teachers.(translate)
3) The customer rushed into the manager's office _______ and required a refund. To his great_____, the manager not only refused to do so but also called the security guards.(angry)
4) ---How did the film you saw yesterday _____?---Oh, it had a happy______. The boy killed the monster and saved all his family in the _______.(ending)
Keys: 1) sorrow; sorrowful 2) translator; translated; translation 3) angrily; anger 4) end; ending; end IV 重点词汇 (旨在提供综合运用所需材料)
1. aspect n.方面;样子;外表
[典例]
1) You are looking at only one aspect of the problem.你只是看到问题的一个方面。
2) They considered the plan in all its aspects.他们考虑了计划的各个方面。
[练习] 根据意思补全句子。
(1)You are right _______(在这个方面).
(2)I am interested in________(自然科学的各个方面).
Keys: (1)in this aspect (2)all aspects of science

2. convey v.传达;运送
[典例]
1) The workers are busy in conveying the supplies to the warehouse
工人们正忙于把物资运送到仓库
2) I can't convey my feelings in words. 我的情感难以言表。
3) The ambassador personally conveyed the president's message to the premier.
大使亲自向总理转达了总统的问候。
【考例分析】
A good teacher must know how to __________his ideas.
A. convey B. display C. consult D. confront
[解析] 本句译为:一个好的教师必须知道怎样传达他的思想。 convey传达(表达),转达,
Display显示,显露,consult 咨询,请教,confront处理,解决。
[答案] A
[练习] 汉译英
1)用公共汽车载送旅客前往航空站。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2)你得将这消息通知他否则他就要离开这个城市了。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3)有时我们很难清晰地表达自己的意愿。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) Passengers are conveyed by bus to the air terminal.2) You should convey the information to him
as soon as possible or he will leave the city.3) Sometimes we found it hard to convey our own will.

3. concrete adj.具体的 n.混凝土;凝结物
[典例]
1) You need to offer concrete evidences to support your idea.你需要用具体的事实支持你的想法。
2) Concrete is very strong and is used in many modern buildings.
混凝土很结实,经常被用在许多现代建筑物中。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 书和黑板都是具体的东西。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 城市中大多建筑物是用混凝土和钢筋建成的。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) Books and blackboards are concrete objects. 2) Most of the buildings in city are made of concrete and steel.

4. tease v.取笑;招惹;戏弄
[典例]
1) It's not polite to tease the disabled.取笑残疾人是不礼貌的。
2) Nobody likes to be teased about any shortcoming.没有人会喜欢被别人嘲笑自己的缺点。
[同义短语]
laugh at /make fun of /play jokes on/play trick on
[练习] 汉译英
1) 别招惹这只小狗,否则它会对你不客气。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 戏弄别人是很不礼貌的。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)Don't tease the dog, or it will attack back to you. 2)Teasing others is not good manners.

5. pattern n.模式;式样;图案
[典例]
1) A good tailor can make a dress without a pattern. 好的裁缝不用纸样就能做衣服。
2) She is a pattern of all the classmates.她是所有同学的典范。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 花图案在乡村是非常受欢迎的。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 她已经习惯了家庭生活的新方式。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)The flower pattern is very popular in villages. 2) She has got used to the new patterns of family life.

6. underline v.在下面画线;强调
[典例]
1) While reading the article, you should underline some sentences puzzling you.
阅读时,你应该将让你感到疑惑的句子划下来。
2) Pay attention to the underlined parts.注意划线的部分。
3) The teacher underlined the discipline the first day we went to school.
开学第一天,老师就给我们强调了纪律。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 父母强调了当他们外出时,孩子应该注意的事情。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 秘书为老板划出了今天最急于解决的事务。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) The parents underlined some points that should be paid attention to for the child when they were absent.
2) The secretary underlined the most urgent affairs today for her boss.

7. exchange v.交换,交流 n.交换, 交流, 交易
[典例]
1) exchange Christmas gifts交换圣诞节礼物
2) exchange experience交流经验
3) exchange greetings互相问候
4) exchange seats with sb. 与某人调换一个座位
5) an exchange of views交换意见
6) exchange professor交流讲学教授
7) exchange student(两国间)交换的留学生
[重点用法]
exchange sth. for sth.把...换成...
exchange sth. with sb.和某人互换
[练习] 汉译英
1) 我下周要出国旅游了,所以得去银行把人民币兑换成美金。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 这两个队伍公开交流意见。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) I am going to travel abroad, so I go to exchange some RMB for dollars in bank. 2)There is an
open exchange of ideas between two teams.

8. sponsor n.赞助人;主办者 vt.发起,举办,倡议
[典例]
1) The exhibition was sponsored by the Society of Culture. 这个展览会是由文化学会主办的。
2) Have you found out the sponsor of our basketball match.你找到我们篮球比赛的赞助商了吗?
[练习] 汉译英
1) 在主办方的帮助下,我们成功地举办了这次酒会。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 志愿者发起了一项保护野生动物的活动。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) With the help of sponsor, we managed to hold a cocktail Party. 2) The volunteers sponsored an
activity to protect wildlife.
V 重点词组 (旨在提供综合运用所需材料)
1. take it easy从容, 不紧张, 松懈, 轻松
[典例]
1) There is enough time. Take it easy.别紧张,还有足够的时间。
2) I want to take it easy when I am on holiday.假期我想好好放松下。
[短语归纳]
take things easy不紧张;轻松轻松从容不迫地进行工作
I'm easy. 我随便[好办]。
[练习] 汉译英
1)慢慢走。路面都结冰了。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2)爷爷明年将会退休,可以多休息了。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) Take it easy. The roads are icy. 2) My grandfather will retire next year and can take things easy.

2. make up of(多用于被动)构成
[典例]
1) The committee is made up of 12 members.这个委员会由12名成员构成。
2) Our class is made up of 45 students and 7 teachers.我们班是由45名学生和7位老师构成的。
[短语归纳]
consist of 由......组成(不能用于被动)
be made of用......材料制成(可见材料)
be made from用......材料制成(看不见材料)
make...into..把...作成...
[练习] 汉译英
1) 他很快地就把这些木材造出一条船.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 长城是由石头和砖头砌成的.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3) 物质是由叫做分子的微粒组成的。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) He made the wood into a boat quickly. 2) The Great Wall is made of stones and bricks. 3)
Substances consist of small particles called molecules.

3. try out 试验, 考验,
[典例]
1) The government are trying out a new method to solve the economy crisis.
2) Let's try out the new typewriter.
[短语归纳]
try on试穿
carry out实施
[练习] 汉译英
1) 她参加了主角选拔表演赛。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 新政策上周已经实行。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3) 在发射神州七号前,科学家们十分认真地对其进行了测试。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) She tried out for the lead. 2) The new policy has been carried out since last week. 3) The
scientists tried out the Shenzhou VII very carefully before it was sent to space.

4. let out发出, 泄露
[典例]
1) She let out a cry of surprise.她发出惊讶的声音。
2) She promised that she would not let out the plan to the press.她答应不会向新闻方面泄露这个计划。
[短语归纳]
leave out省去, 遗漏, 不考虑
bring out使显示, 出版,
make out理解, 辨认出
[练习] 汉译英
1) 毒气泄露并引发了极大的惊慌。
________________________________________________________________________________________
2) 老师再次强调同学们在听讲座时不能漏掉重点。
________________________________________________________________________________________
3) 这个笔迹有点模糊但我还是可以辨认出来。
________________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) The poisonous gas let out and caused a great panic. 2) The teacher stressed again that the students should not leave out any important details when in the lecture. 3) The handwriting is a little vague but I can still make it out.
VI 重点句子 (旨在提供句子结构等所需材料)
1. Some poems tell a story or describe something in a way that will give the reader a strong impression. Others try to convey certain emotions.
有的诗歌以一种令读者印象深刻的方式讲述故事或描述事情。而有些诗歌是为了传递某些情感。
[解释] some...others...一些......而另一些...
[典例]In the summer camp, some members are from Africa. Others are from Asia.夏令营活动中,有些营员来自非洲,有些来自亚洲。
[练习] 汉译英
1)讨论过程中。有些人同意这个计划,有些人反对。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2)比赛过程中,这支团队合作很好。他们中一些人进行策划,一些人收集信息;而另些人却在准
备他们的演说词。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)In the discussion, some people agreed with the plan, while others were against.
2) The group cooperated well in the course of the competition. Some of them made the plan; some of them
collected the information; others prepared for their speech.

2. And said though strange they all were true.而且说,虽然奇怪,但它们都是真的。
[解释]though strange是省略句,在句中充当让步状语。相当于though they were strange。
在一些状语从句中,如时间,条件,让步状从中,如果从句的主语与主句主语一致或者为it,而且从句的谓语部分有动词be,就可以把从句的主语和动词be连同省略。
[典例]
1) Whenever in difficulty(=whenever you are in difficulty), don't hesitate to ask me for help.
无论什么时候有困难,都不要犹豫,立即找我帮忙。
2) If necessary, I will leave for Guangzhou to help you.如果有必要,我回去广州帮你。
[练习] 汉译英
1)他在困难中遇上了许多好心人。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2)虽然被骗了许多次,她还是很轻易相信陌生人。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)When in difficulty, he met many kind persons.
2) Though cheated many times, she is still easy to believe strangers.
二、课文要点
1课文词汇等填空(旨在复习本课文中的单词拼写和主要词语等)
根据课文内容完成下面语法填空,注意单词拼写和词语用法:
  There are various reasons 1 people write poetry. Some 2 (诗歌)give the reader a strong impression. Others try to 3 (传达)certain emotions. In this text, some simple forms of English poems are introduced. Such 4 nursery rhymes, which may seem 5 (concretely), but they are easy to learn and recite. List poems have a 6 (灵活的) line length and repeated phrases. Students can also write the cinquanin, a poem 7 (make) up of five lines. Haiku is a Japanese form of poetry with 17 syllables. English speakers also 8 (翻译) Tang poems into English. 9 so many different forms of poetry to choose from, students may 10 (eventual) want to write poems of their own.
答案:1. why 2.poems 3.convey 4.as 5.concrete
6.flexible 7.made 8.translate 9.With 10. eventually

2课文大意概括 (旨在训练用30个单词概括大意的能力)
阅读课文,试着用30来个单词概括课文大意或翻译下面短文。
本文概述人们写诗的原因,并列举5种简单英语诗歌的特点,形式的,包括这些诗歌的例子。
The passage talks about _________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

答案:The passage talks about the reasons why people write poetry and outlines the characteristics of five simple forms of English poems, including examples of these forms.
3课文佳句背诵与仿写 (旨在培养对难句的理解和运用能力)
1.【原句】By playing with the words in nursery rhymes, children learn about language.通过童谣中的文字游戏,孩子们学习了语言。
[模仿要点] 句子结构: by doing (作状语),+ 主句
【模仿1】通过很多练习,你可以提高你的英语发音。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案: By practicing a lot, you can improve your English pronunciation.
【模仿2】通过双方的共同努力,我们可以享受温暖的师生关系。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案: By making joint efforts, we can enjoy a warm relationship between teachers and students.

2.【原句】Another simple form of poem that students can easily write is the cinquain, a poem made up of five lines.另外一种学生容易写的简体诗是由五行组成的,叫五行诗。
[模仿要点] 句子结构: 同位语
【模仿1】另一个人们赞成"福娃",那五个2008年奥运会吉祥物,的英文名字的原因是它的拼音翻译。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:Another reason why people show favour of "Fuwa", the English name of five mascots of the 2008 Olympics, is its pinyin translation.
【模仿2】另一个我们能帮助保护我们的生存环境的努力是对塑料袋,一种难溶解的物质,使用的禁止。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:Another efforts that we can make to help protect our living environment is a ban on the use of plastic bags, a kind of material hard to be degraded.
3. 【原句】With these, students can convey a strong picture in just a few words.用五行诗,学生可以用少量的词语传递一幅动人的画面。
[模仿要点] 句子结构: with +N.(作状语)
【模仿1】共同努力,我们可以创造一个和谐的社会。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:With the joint efforts, we can make a harmony society.
【模仿2】在他的指导下,我们用一种更好的方法解决了这个问题。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:With his instruction, we work out the problem in a better way.
4. 【原句】It is easy to write and, like the cinquain, can give a clear picture and create a special feeling using the minimum of words.它容易写,而且像五行诗一样,它可以用最少的词语呈现一幅清晰的画面,表达出一种特殊的感情。
[模仿要点] 句子结构:It is + adj. to do sth, like + N./doing +谓语
【模仿1】网上畅游很容易,像网上购物,能省很多从这家店到那家店的时间。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:It is convenient to surf on the Internet and,like shopping on line, can save you lots of time going from one shop to another.
【模仿2】收集东西好有趣,像收集邮票,在找出它们的历史和意义的同时可以学到很多东西。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:It is interesting to collect things, and like collecting stamps, can give you lots of knowledge finding out the history and the meaning of them.
三、单元自测
1完形填空
  阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从21-30各题所给的A、B、C和D项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
词数:180 完成时间:14分钟 难度:*** A group of alumni (校友) got together to visit their old university professor. Their 21 soon turned into com- plaints about the 22 they face in work and in life. The professor then brought over a large pot of coffee and 23 cups -- porcelain (瓷器), plastic, glass, crystal, some plain-looking, some expensive, some nice-looking - telling them to help themselves to the coffee.
When all the students had helped themselves to a cup of coffee, the professor said, "If you hadn't noticed, all the nice-looking expensive cups were 24 , leaving behind the plain and cheap ones. While it is 25 for you to want only the best for yourselves, that is the 26 of your stress. What all of you 27 wanted was coffee, not the cup, 28 you consciously (有意识地) went for the best cups."
Life is the coffee. Jobs, money and position are the cups. They are just tools to hold 29 , and do not change the quality of life. Sometimes, by 30 only on the cup, we fail to enjoy the coffee.
21. A. argument B. quarrel C. conversation D. debate
22. A. failure B. stress C. hardship D. misfortune
23. A. lovely B. various C. strange D. classical
24. A. set back B. moved up C. taken up D. put aside
25. A. important B. normal C. opposite D. rare
26. A. excuse B. condition C. result D. source
27. A. nearly B. really C. usually D. certainly
28. A. and B. so C. but D. thus
29. A. life B. courage C. happiness D. complaint
30. A. operating B. basing C. concentrating D. depending
答案:
人们总是会从各种各样的咖啡杯里选择最好看最昂贵的,就好像人们在生活中总是为自己寻求最好的东西,而这就是人们产生压力的原因。人生就是咖啡杯里的咖啡,我们应该去享受咖啡的美好味道,而不是把自己的精力集中在为自己挑选漂亮的杯子。重要的是咖啡,而不是容器。
21. C。根据下文的"...complaints about the 22 in work and in life."可知他们是在谈话。
22. B。根据下文的"...that is the 26 of your stress." 可知他们是在抱怨生活中的压力。
23. B。根据下文的描述可知有各种各样的咖啡杯。
24. C。根据下文的"...leaving behind the plain and cheap ones."可知便宜的、不好看的咖啡杯都剩下了,而昂贵漂亮的咖啡杯都被人拿起来用了。
25. B。每个人都选择昂贵漂亮的咖啡杯,这符合人性的特点,所以这是很正常的事情。
26. D。根据上文的"While it is 25 for you to want only the best for yourselves..."可知教授在解释说这就是人们产生压力的起源。
27. B。教授的意思是"你们真正想要的是咖啡"。
28. C。你们真正想要的是咖啡却有意识地选择好的杯子,上下文为转折关系。
29. A。从上文"Life is the coffee."以及下面的"...and do not change the quality of life."可知答案为A。
30. C。上文提示。从上文人们只注意咖啡杯的细节可知此处意为人们只把注意力放在杯子上而没有珍惜生命本质的东西。
2语法填空
  阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填入一个适当的词或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空,并将答案填写在答题卡标号为31-40的相应位置上。
词数:142 完成时间:8分钟 难度:** People are not as honest as they once were. The temptation (诱惑) to steal is greater 31 ever before especially in large shops. A detective recently watched a well-dressed woman 32 always went into a large store on Monday morning. 33 Monday, there were fewer people in the shop than usual 34 the woman came in, so it was easier for the detective 35 (watch)her. The woman first bought a few small articles. After a little 6me, she chose one of 36 (expensive) dresses in the shop and handed it to an assistant who wrapped it up for her as quickly 37 possible. Then the woman simply took it and walked out of the shop 38 paying. When she 39 (catch), the detective found out that the shop-assistant was her daughter. Thc girl "gave" her mother a free dress once 40 week.
答案:
31.than 32.who/that 33.One 34.when 35.to watch 36.the most expensive 37.as
38.without 39.was caught 40. a
31.than.greater than是形容词的比较级结构:
32.who, who引导的限制性定语从句:
33.One,one Monday表一个星期天:
34.when,考查由when引导的时间状语从句:
35.to watch, 考查It is +adj + to do sth.的句型结构,其中to do sth.作真正的主语:
36.the most expensive,从上下文可知,此处是"最昂贵的衣服之一":
37.as,as+adj原级十as possible 是固定搭配,"尽可能地......;"
38.without.Without paying指没有付钱;
39.was caught. 考查动词的被动语态结构,"被抓":
40.a,once a week指每星期一次.
3阅读理解
  阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
词数:269 完成时间:6分钟 难度:*** WASHINGTON/NEW YORK-US President Bush said on Monday that he wanted Osama bin Laden "dead or alive" for last week's attacks on the World Trade Center and the pentagon, but many of Washington's allies are cool on strikes against Afghanistan.
Bush has named Saudi-born militant Osama bin Laden as a prime suspect, though he has provided no evidence for his claim. Still, he had been building public support for military action and has warned Afghanistan's Taliban to give up Bin Laden.
But the Taliban, which has warned of "holy war" in response to any US attack, by Tuesday afternoon had given no indication of whether the man they call their "guest" would be handed over.
On, an unprecedented "Day of terror", two planes smashed into New York's World Trade Center twin towers on September ll, putting them into ruins while explosions rocked the Pentagon in Washington, and the White House and State Department were evacuated (疏散). The attacks have left more than 5, 000 people dead or missing.
China has said it is ready to join international efforts in fighting "terrorism" but insisted that peace, not war, is the best option (选项).
In London, Blair declared it a "war between the civilized world and fanaticism" and determined to stand by anally which aided Britain in two world wars. France, Germany and other, including Russia, are also supportive. "The evil must be punished," Russian President Vladimir Putin said. "But we should not liken ourselves to bandit." His defense chiefs have ruled out hosting NATO forces in former Soviet Central Asia or joining US military action, although Moscow says it will help with intelligence.
41. What building(s) was/were totally damaged?
A. The World Trade Center and the Pentagon. B. The World Trade Center.
C. The Pentagon. D. The White House.
42. In this passage, what country does the underlined pan refer to?
A. Russia. B. France. C. Germany. D. America.
43. According to the passage, which of the following is right?
A. It was bin Laden that made the terrorist attacks, which have left more than 5, 000 people dead or missing.
B. Russian forces will join US military action.
C. There is no sign to show that the Taliban will hand over bin Laden.
D. Few countries support America after the attacks.
44. From the passage, what problem is the world facing ?"
A. Wars. B. Terrorism. C. Population. D. Explosions.
45. What does the word "suspect" in the second paragraph mean in this passage. ?
A. Someone who has attacked others.
B. Someone who has set the building on fire.
C. Someone who has stolen some things.
D. Someone who has probably done wrong.
  答案:
41.答案是B.第四段中的putting them into ruins对应问题中的totally damaged,故只有World Trade Center。
42.答案是D.stand by...站在......的一边。两次世界大战支持英国的必是America。
43.答案是C.第三段表明此意。
44.答案是B.从几个国家政府发表的声明来判断世界面临"恐怖组织"的威胁。
45.答案是D。
4. 读写任务
阅读下面的短文,然后按照要求写一篇150词左右的英语短文:
I restarted my senior high school life due to my failure in my entrance examination. I was very upset at that time.
My teacher found me depressed. One day he asked me to come to his office and told me about his attitude towards life "We might suffer from making mistakes, but it's important to model ourselves into the people we will become. All the growing pains and the embarrassing things we may experience are part of the process. We never stop growing up, so learn from it and keep up your spirit! "At last, he added, "if you are optimistic, things you want may happen to you!"
Warm feelings rush through my soul. I suddenly found the sun shining again when I stepped out of his office.
With the teacher's help, I eventually got over my depression. From then on, I no longer bowed my head but began smiling to my classmates. I would put up my hand confidently in class and kid with my new friends in my spare time. Meanwhile, I was gradually embraced by my classmates.
[写作内容]
1.以约30个词概括短文内容。
2.然后以约120个词就"老师对学生人生的影响"这个主题发表你的看法,并包括下面要点。
1)你对好的老师和不好的老师对学生的人生影响有何感想。
2)以你的生活经历为例,说明老师对你成长的影响。
[写作要求]
1.作文中可使用自己的亲身经历或虚构的故事,也可以参照阅读材料的内容,但不得直接引用原文中的句子。标题自定。
2.作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称。
[评分标准]概括准确,语言规范,内容合适,篇章连贯。
[写作辅导]
1.写作有可能用到的主要短语和单词:鼓励encouragement,鼓励某人做某事encourage sb to do sth, 学会自强learn to be independent, 自信confidence/confident,成功succeed/success,情感低谷be upset,勇敢面对生活中的痛苦face bravely pains in life.
2.本文的概要必须包含以下要点:the student was upset / his teacher told him about his own attitude towards life/his teacher encouraged him to face bravely pains and gains in life.
3.本文要注意,概要一定要根据文段的时态来写。同时,绝对不能抄袭原文的句子。作文中可使用自己的亲身经历或虚构的故事时,一般使用一般过去时态较为常见。而结论性的观点应使用一般现在时或一般将来时态。
I will never Forget My Teacher
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
答案:

I will Never Forget My Teacher
When the student was upset, the teacher told him about his own attitude towards life and encouraged him to face bravely pains and gains in life, which helped him finally defeat his depression.
Teachers play an important role in us students' growth. We can't grow up well without our teachers. A good teacher can help his students out to great successes. He can also encourage his students to be brave when they are upset and in trouble. What is more, a good teacher can make you independent and confident. I will never forget my English teacher, Mr. Li, who never looked me as a stupid student; he always gave a lot of encouragement and kind help, which led to my good command of English.
Teachers' love is unforgettable. Their kind help will be of great benefit to us forever.


Unit3 A healthy life
一、语言要点
I单元要点预览(旨在让同学整体了解本单元要点)
词汇
部分 词语
辨析 1.stress/pressure/tension 2. ban/forbid/prohibit 3. effect/influence
4. ashamed/ shameful 词形
变化 1. stress n. 压力, 重点v. 着重, 强调, 重读 stressed adj.感到压力的 stressful adj 产生压力的 2. addict v. 使沉溺, 使上瘾 addiction n. 沉溺, 上瘾 addictive adj. 上瘾的 3.automatic adj. 自动的, 无意识的, automatically adv. 自动地, 机械地 4.shame n. 羞耻, 羞愧, ashamed adj. 感到惭愧或羞耻的 shameful adj.可耻的,丢脸的 5.comprehension n.理解(力) comprehend v.理解,领会 comprehensive adj.能充分理解的 6. judgment n.判断 judge v.判断 judge n.法官,裁判 7. illegal adj.不合法的 legal n.合法的 重点
单词 1. abuse n.&v.滥用;虐待
2. ban n.&v.禁止;取缔;禁令
3. due adj. 应付的,到期的,预期的
4. addicted adj.成习惯而离不开....
5. accustomed adj. 通常的
6. quit vt.停止(作某事);离开
7. survival n.幸存者 重点
词组 feel like doing sth. 想要做某事 take risks 冒险/at risk 处于危险之中
in spite of 不管;尽管 get into陷入  重点句子 1. When I was taken off the school football team because I was unfit, I knew it was time to quit smoking. 重点语法 It的用法(I)(见语法专题) II 词语辨析 (旨在提供完形填空所需材料)
1). stress/pressure/tension压力 【解释】
stress指承受外来的压力,也可指由于某原因而引起的心理,生理或情绪上的紧张。
pressure指单位面积 上所受的压力。或指某事物所产生的压力或影响。
tension多指关系不好或其他原因而出现的紧张状态,或指某物被过度伸展后呈现的状态。 【练习】选择stress/pressure或tension并用其适当的形式填空
1) More and more people cannot bear the ________ of modern life.
2) Don't pull it any more. The great ________ will break the rope.
3) The patient is complaining of his feeling of _______ on his chest.
4) Nobody can work well under ___________.
Keys: 1) stress 2) intension 3) pressure 4) pressure/stress 2). ban/forbid/prohibit禁止 【解释】
ban由于法律或社会压力而禁止,有谴责或不赞成的意味。搭配ban...from sth./doing sth.
forbid较常用。可是个人,也可以是国家,政府机关作出的规定和准则。搭配forbid sb. to do sth./forbid doing sth.
prohibit强调以法律或官方行政手段,或规章制度的形式加以禁止。搭配prohibit sb. from sth./ doing sth. 【练习】选择ban/forbid或prohibit,并用其适当的形式填空
1) After the accident, he was _______ from driving alone.
2) Our school ________ us to bring cell phone to school.
3) The law __________ the tobacco from being sold freely.
Keys: 1) banned 2) forbad 3) prohibits 3) effect/influence影响 【解释】
effect:能直接引起某种结果的影响
influence指对某人或物产生的潜移默化的影响。 【练习】选择effect或influence并用其适当的形式填空
1)The drug had an immediate __________ on the pain.。
2) My parents considered my friend to be a bad _______ on me.
Keys: 1) effect 2) influence 4)ashamed/ shameful羞耻,惭愧的 【解释】
ashamed做表语,表示(人)感到羞耻,惭愧的
shameful指事情或行为本身可耻,不道德的。 【练习】选择ashamed或shameful并用其适当的形式填空
1) The boy was _________ to tell his mother that he had failed.
2) I was _______ of my ________ behavior at that time.
Keys: 1)ashamed 2) ashamed; shameful    III 词性变化 (旨在提供语法填空所需材料)
1. stress n. 压力, 重点v. 着重, 强调, 重读 stressed adj.感到压力的 stressful adj 产生压力的 2. addict v. 使沉溺, 使上瘾 addiction n. 沉溺, 上瘾 addictive adj. 上瘾的 3.automatic adj. 自动的, 无意识的, automatically adv. 自动地, 机械地 4.shame n. 羞耻, 羞愧, ashamed adj. 感到惭愧或羞耻的 shameful adj.可耻的,丢脸的 5.comprehension n.理解(力) comprehend v.理解,领会 comprehensive adj.能充分理解的 6. judgment n.判断 judge v.判断 judge n.法官,裁判 7. illegal adj.不合法的 legal n.合法的 【练习】根据句子结构,用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空
1) After a _______ week of work, all the employees were extremely ________ and tired. They complained that few could work efficiently under ________.(stress)
2) Playing computer games is highly _______. Once you get _______to it, you will find it hard to get rid of it. Now, Henry, one of my classmate is fighting his _______ to the games.(addict)
3) As a _______, he has good _________ and never _______ a person by his appearance.(judge)
4) Doing any ________ anything will be protected in China, while doing anything _______will be punished.(legal)
5) The son was _______ to hurt his old mother in such a _______way and came to beg her pardon.(shame)
6) Some songs by Zhoujielun can not be _________ by us. To some old people, they are completely beyond________ . So, their grandson or granddaughters have to explain the songs in a more ________way to their grandparents.(comprehend)
7) When I saw a car rushing towards me at a high speed, I jumped aside __________. It was my _______ action that saved my life.(automatic)
keys: 1) stressful; stressed; stress 2) addictive; addicted; addiction 3) judge; judgment; judges 4) legal; illegally 5) ashamed; shameful 6) comprehended; comprehension; comprehensive 7) automatically; automatic IV 重点词汇 (旨在提供综合运用所需材料)
1. abuse n.&v.滥用;虐待
[典例]
1) We abuse land because we regard it as a commodity belonging to us"
我们滥用土地,因为我们把它当作属于自己的商品.
2) He greeted me with a stream of abuse, which made me feel sad.
他迎面对我一顿痛骂,这使我很难过.
[重点用法]
drug abuse滥用药品
child abuse虐待儿童
[练习] 汉译英
1) 滥用能源会给我们的子孙后代带来可怕的未来。
______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 根据最新的法律,家长也不允许在家中虐待儿童。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) The abuse of energy will bring our offspring a terrible future. 2) According to the new law,
parents are also not allowed to abuse their children in the family.

2. ban n.&v.禁止;取缔;禁令
[重点用法]
ban...from sth./doing sth.禁止做某事
a ban on关于......的禁令
[典例]
1) From last June, there is a ban on offering plastic bags for free in supermarket.
从去年六月份开始禁止超市无偿提供塑料袋。
2) People are banned from smoking in many public places in England.在英国许多公共场所禁止吸烟。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 这儿的学生不允许带手机回校。
______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 禁止摩托车在我们这个城市引起很大的争论。
______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) The students here are banned from bring cell phones back to school. 2) A ban on motorcycle caused great dispute in our city.

3. due adj. 应付的,到期的,预期的
[典例]
1) Their plane is due in 15 minutes. 他们的飞机预定在15分钟后到达
2) The electricity bill is due today . 今天该交电费了.
3) A great deal of money is due to you 这些钱应该付给你。
[重点用法]
due to因为......;归因于,归功于
be due to do sth.定于某时做某事
[练习] 汉译英
1) 由于这次全球性的金融危机,他被解雇了。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 这次峰会将在一个非洲国家举行。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) He was fired due to the global financial crisis. 2) The summit is due to be held in an Africa country.


4. addicted adj.成习惯而离不开...
[重点用法]
be addicted to sth/doing sth沉溺于......;专心做......
addict oneself to sth沉溺于......
[典例]
1) 50 million Americans are thought to be addicted to nicotine.据说有五百万美国人有烟瘾。
2) Many kids have now become addicted to surfing the Net.很多孩子现在沉迷于上网
3) He is an addicted traveler.他是个旅行迷。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 辍学后,他沉溺于烟酒中。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 不要再让自己陷入这样愚蠢的事情。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) After leaving school, he was addicted to cigarette and alcohol. 2) Don't addict yourself to such foolish things any longer.

5. accustomed adj. 通常的
[重点用法]
be(become/grow/get accustomed)to(doing)sth.习惯于(与get used to sth./doing sth.同义)
accustom oneself to sh./doing sth.使自己习惯于.....;养成.......的习惯
[典例]
1) We were accustomed to working together.我们习惯了一起工作。
2) Having moved to the northeast of China, I had to accustom myself to the dry weather.
搬到东北后,我不得不使自己适应干燥的气候。
[练习]
用accustom恰当形式填空
1) She was a person_______ ________ having eight hours' sleep a night.
2) He took his_______ seat by the fire.
3) I'm not______ to getting up so early.
Keys: 1)accustomed to 2) accustomed 3)accustomed
汉译英
1)她的眼睛慢慢适应了黑暗。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2)短裤放在惯常的地方。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) Her eyes quickly became accustomed to the dark.2) The pans were in their accustomed places.

6. quit (quit/quitted) vt.停止(作某事);离职
[典例]
1) I am so tired that I decide to quit next month.我很累了,所以我打算下个月辞职。
2) I had to quit the gathering in order to be home by midnight.为了能在午夜前到家,我不得不离开聚会
3) He quit smoking, and talked something to the person next to him.他停下烟,和旁边的人说着什么。
[重点用法]
quit doing sth.(必须接名词或动名词做宾语) 除此,以下动词有类似用法suggest; practise; risk(冒险);
enjoy; escape; admit; advise; allow; appreciate; avoid; deny; mind; miss; permit; consider; forbid; finish;
prevent; keep ; delay; dislike; imagine;
[练习] 汉译英
1) 教练盯着队员并要求他们不要说话。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 这个贼有逃脱警察抓捕的技能。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3) 我想你别介意我写信向你求救。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) The coach stare at the team members and asked them to quit talking. 2) The thief has the skill of
escaping being caught by policemen. 3) I would like you not to mind me writing to you for help.

6. survival n.幸存
[重点用法]
survive v.幸免于,幸存
survivor n.幸存者
[典例]
1) As is known, we need food and water for survival.众所周知,为了生存我们需要食物和水。
2) The house survive the storm.经历暴风雪,房子依然没事。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 没有人能够在这次空难中幸存下来。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 她比她丈夫多活了十年。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3) 这种风格是上个世纪遗留下的。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) No one survived the air crash. 2) She survived her husband by 10 years. 3) That fashion is a
survival from last century.
V 重点词组 (旨在提供综合运用所需材料)
1. feel like doing sth. 想要做某事 ;
[典例]
I feel like drinking a cup of hot tea in the cold winter every evening.
在寒冷的冬天里,我每个晚上都要喝杯热茶
I feel like lying on the bed and listening to the music.我喜欢躺在床上听歌.
He feels like a faithful before that learned scholar.
在这个知识渊博的学者面前,他就象一个忠诚的信徒.
It feels like a snake.这摸上去像是条蛇.
[短语归纳]
would like to do sth.想要做某事
prefer to do sth.喜欢做某事
would rather do ... than do...情愿做......而不愿...
prefer doing (sth.) to (doing) sth. 情愿做......而不愿...
enjoy doing sth.喜欢/乐意做某事
[练习] 汉译英
1) 他想抽根烟。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 这些日子我胃口不好,不想吃东西。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3) 我情愿工作到深夜完成这件事情也不愿工作没做完就休息。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) He feels like a cigarette. 2) I don't have an appetite theses days and don't feel like eating
anything. 3) I would rather finish it until late night than have a rest leaving the work unfinished.

2. take a risk/risks 冒险
[典例]
1) I know that I am taking a risk, but it is all worthwhile.我知道我是在冒险,但这非常值得。
2) He took the risk of losing his own life and saved my life in the cold river.
他冒着失去自己生命的危险,在冰冷的河水里救了我的命。
[短语归纳]
at risk冒风险;处于危险中
at the risk of sth./doing sth.冒。。。的危险
risk doing冒险做。。。
at one's own risk自担风险
[练习] 汉译英
1)为了寻找失踪的小孩,他冒着被困风雪中的危险。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2)任何人在此游泳,后果自负。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3)战争爆发了,许多无辜的民众处于失去生命的危险之中。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) In order to search for the lost child, he risked getting caught in a storm. 2) Anyone swimming in this lake is at his own risk. 3) The war broke out, and many innocent people were at the risk of losing their live.

3. in spite of 不管;尽管
[典例]
1) They kept going in spite of their fears. 他们不顾害怕继续前进。
2) In spite of the heavy rain, he came on time.尽管雨很大,他还是按时来了。
[同义归纳]
regardless of不管,不顾,尽管;后跟名词,动名词,代词,名词短语等。
despite=in spite of
although尽管,后跟从句
[练习] 汉译英
1)不管别人怎么说,我仍认为他这个人很好。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2)尽管天气不好,他们的假期还是过得极为愉快。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) In spite of /despite what others said, I think he's a very nice person. 2) They had a wonderful holiday, in spite of/despite the bad weather./ Although the weather was bad, they still had a wonderful holiday.

4. get into陷入
[典例]
1) He got into the habit of smoking following his father's example.他学他的父亲,染上了吸烟的习惯。
2) You may get into trouble, if you always tease others.如果你总是取笑别人,你会惹上麻烦的。
[短语归纳]
get over a difficulty克服困难
get over a cough咳嗽好了
get down to sth./doing sth.开始做某事
get through to you打通你的电话
get through the work完成工作
[练习]汉译英
1) 当陷入麻烦时,一定要保持镇定。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 晚饭后,女孩开始做功课。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Key: 1) When getting in trouble, be sure to keep calm. 2) After the supper, the girl got down to her homework.
VI 重点句子 (旨在提供句子结构等所需材料)
1. When I was taken off the school football team because I was unfit, I knew it was time to quit smoking
当因为我不再适合而被学校足球队开除以后,我意识到自己是时候戒烟了.
[解释] It is (high/about) time for sb. to do sth.=It is (high/about) time that sb. did/should do sth.该某人做某事的时候了。
[典例]
It is high time for us to say good-bye.=It is high time that we should say good-bye.到我们分别的时候了。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 现在是周六了,你该把工作放下了。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 我们该为自己的未来做打算了。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) It's Saturday already. It's high time for you to put down your work. 2) It's about time that we should plan for our future.

二、课文要点
1课文词汇等填空(旨在复习本课文中的单词拼写和主要词语等)
根据课文内容完成下面语法填空,注意单词拼写和词语用法:
  James' grandfather wrote to help James 1 (戒烟) smoking. James' grandfather once became 2 (addicted)to cigarettes in three ways. His body was 3 (习惯) to having nicotine. He began to do it automatically and became 4 (mental) addicted. But he finally managed to stop 5 realizing the harmful 6 (影响) of it. He also told James that smoking did damage to heart and 7 (肺部) and it was more difficult for smoking couples to become 8 (怀孕). So he gave James some advice and encouraged him not to be 9 (disappoint). 10 he kept trying, he would succeed eventually.
答案:1. quit/stop 2. addicted 3.accustomed 4. mentally 5. when 6.effects 7.lungs 8.pregnant 9.disappointed 10. If
2课文大意概括 (旨在训练用30个单词概括大意的能力)
阅读课文,试着用30来个单词概括课文大意或翻译下面短文。
  詹姆斯的祖父写信帮助詹姆斯戒烟,告诉他如何会沉迷于香烟,吸烟的恶果,并就如何摆脱坏习惯给他一些建议,。
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

答案:James' grandfather wrote to help James quit smoking by telling him the ways of becoming addicted to cigarettes, the harmful effects of smoking and giving him some advice on how to get rid of the bad habit.

3课文佳句背诵与仿写 (旨在培养对难句的理解和运用能力)
1.【原句】It seems amazing that at my age I am still fit enough to cycle 20 kilometers in an afternoon.感到惊讶吧,像我这样的年纪,身体健康而且能在一个下午骑车跑20公里。
[模仿要点] 句子结构:It seems + adj. + that 引导主语从句
【模仿1】杰克下课后仍然呆在课室继续他的学习似乎令人惊讶。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:It seems surprising that after class Jack still stayed in the classroom to continue his reading.
【模仿2】网上我们几秒钟内就能获得世界上发生的一切事情的信息似乎令人惊叹。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:It seems amazing that on line we can get information about what is happening around the world in a minute.
2. 【原句】However, what I did know was that my girlfriend thought I smelt terrible.然而我的的确确知道,我的女朋友觉得我的烟味很难闻。

[模仿要点] 句子结构: what 引导主语从句 + that 引导表语从句
【模仿1】然而,我所知道的是只有爱,关心及理解才能建立一种理想的师生关系。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:However, what I do know is that only love , care, and understanding can build up an ideal relationship between teacher and students.
【模仿2】然而,我所相信的是只有通过努力学习我才能赶上其他人。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:However, what I do believe is that only by studying hard can I catch up with the others.

3.【原句】Every time you feel like smoking a cigarette, remind yourself that you are a non-smoker.每当你想要吸烟的时候,你就提醒你自己,你(已经)是不抽烟的人了。
[模仿要点] 句子结构:every time 引导状语从句,+ 祈使句
【模仿1】每次你想要玩电脑的时候,提醒你自己曾经经历过的事情。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:Every time you would like to play computer, remind yourself of the experience you once had.
【模仿2】每次你感到压抑的时候,做一些放松运动。

答案:Every time you feel stressed, do some relaxation exercises.
三、单元自测
1完形填空
  阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从21-30各题所给的A、B、C和D项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
词数:179 完成时间:14分钟 难度:***   What is anger? The tightly packed bag of mental frustration erupts into a volcano of danger. Why does one get angry? When one is not 21 with the way things have gone, when someone has been taken in for a ride. when someone blames life for treating him very 22 , and many things are the various reasons.
Getting angry can get your things done somewhere, but not everywhere. This is because as you grow, you yourself are responsible to clean your recycle bin of emotions and 23 . No one has the foresight or 24 to judge what has bought you to that violent 25 or what hardships you have faced. Angry people 26 go places. The closer one comes to this piece of reality, the better he will get.
The best 27 to counterattack anger is to hold patience in ourselves. A person with infinite patience has matured 28 , and is the bravest war-horse over the 29 of anger. He controlled himself every, time and got away from trying circumstances using the best lifeline available. Such people are always 30 themselves and are always enjoying life.
21. A. satisfied B. busy C. frustrated D. concerned
22. A. actually B. politely C. charmingly D. badly
23. A. explanations B. directions C. frustrations D. introductions
24. A. setback B. identity C. responsibility D. capacity
25. A. state B. mood C. condition D. situation
26. A. nearly B. almost C. hardly D. badly
27. A. way B. road C. system D. heart
28. A. physically B. entirely C. mentally D. surprisedly
29. A. connection B. reason C. advice D. path
30. A. in peace with B. in search of C. in charge of D. in terms of
内容概要:本文是这篇文章发怒的成因和控制发怒的必要,引导人们拥有健康的心态。
答案简析:
21. 选A.对自己所遇的事情不满意时,人们会发怒。be satisfied with对....不满意
 22. 选D.当生活对自己不公的时候, 人会发怒。Treat sb badly.对某人不公。
 23. 选C.上文有"mental frustration"。frustrations挫折
 24. 选D.没有人有预见和有能力判断什么引发怒火。Capacity n.能力,容量,能量。
 25. 选B.这里指引发的暴力情绪。mood n.情绪,脾气
 26. 选C发怒的人是没法自控的。hardly adv.几乎不,表否定意思。
 27. 选A.这里指反击发怒的最好的方法。
 28. 选C.有忍耐力的人心理方面,应该是成熟的。physically adv.物质上;体格上.
 29. 选D.因为上文有"the bravest war-horse"可知战马应在战胜怒气的路上走。
30. 选A.上文说,如果我们摆脱发怒,我们一生就能和平相处。in peace with与....和平相处。in terms of 用...话来说 in charge of 负责,管理;in search of寻找。
2语法填空
  阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填入一个适当的词或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空,并将答案填写在答题卡标号为31-40的相应位置上。
词数:147 完成时间:8分钟 难度:*** During World War II, I lived in Amsterdam in the Netherlands. My family was Jewish, 31 we had been hidden away for a year and a half. During that time I hadn't been able to be outdoors for so long 32 I had grown so crazy 33 everything to do with nature. Once, I decided to look at the moon at midnight. But I didn't dare 34 (open)the window to see the night face to face 35 I was afraid of 36 (discover) by the Nazis. I felt very lonely 37 seeing my old friends. So I had to make a new true friend, my diary Kitty, 38 I could tell everything to. 39 (fortune) ,at last my family were discovered and 40 (catch) by the German Nazis half a year later.
答案:
31.so 32.that 33.about 34.(to)open 35.because 36.being discovered 37.without 38.whom 39.Unfortunately 40.caught
31.so.因为前句"我们是犹太人"是因,后面"我们躲了一年半"是果,表示结果用so (因此)。
32.that引导结果状语从句,so...that。
33.about.因grow crazy about...变得对......着迷。
34.(to)open.由didn't可知dare是行为动词,后面要接带to do,但在否定句中to可以省略。
35.because"担心被纳粹发现"是"我不敢开窗"的原因。
36.being discovered.由by可知,很明显指被发现,想到be discovered,又因在介词后,所以要用being discovered.
37.witthout.因为"见不到朋友"才会"感到孤寂"。
38.whom.引导非限制性定语从句并在从句中作宾语,先行词是人,故用whom。
39.Unfortunately尽管"我"和家人躲藏起来,结果还是被发现了,当然是"不幸",修饰全句,用副词。
40.Caught由and可知.是与discovered并列的,也用过去分词,前面省略了were,即被抓。
3.信息匹配
阅读下列应用文及相关信息,并按照要求匹配信息。 、
下面是对几部电影的介绍:
A. Black Snake Moan
Rae has been left for dead on the roadside when Lazarus discovers her. The Godfearing, middle-aged black man quickly learns that the young white woman whom he's nursing back to health is none other than the town tramp(步行)from the small Tennessee town where they live. Worse, she has an anxiety disorder.
B. Blades of Glory
When two figure skaters Chazz and Jimmy brawl(打架) for the gold medal at the World Championships, they are stripped(剥夺)of their gold medals and banned from the sport for life.
C. Mr. Brooks
Consider Mr. Brooks, a successful businessman, a generous philanthropist (慈善家), a loving father and devoted husband. Seemingly, he's perfect. But Mr. Brooks has a secret--he is a cruel serial killer and no one knows it--until now.
D. Evening
The film explores the romantic past and emotional present of Ann Grant and her daughters. As Ann lays dying, she reflects on the time in her youth when she met the love of her life, a man she has never forgotten. Her daughters learn that decisions made on imputes (冲动) can affect a lifetime, and how important it is to know true love when it finds you.
E. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
Harry Potter returns for his fifth year of study at Hogwarts and discovers that much of the wizard community has been denied the truth about the teenager's recent encounter with the evil Lord Voldemort, preferring to turn a blind eye to the news that Voldemort has returned.
F. The Invisible
Nick is a high school senior with a bright future until, in a tragic case of mistaken identity, he is wildly attacked by a troubled girl Annie, and his body is left for dead.
请阅读下列的电影补充介绍,然后匹配电影补充介绍与它们所对应的电影名称。
41Deeply moving and extremely romantic, it is a film about the moments in life that define us, and the timeless love that binds mothers and daughters, sisters and friends.
42He decides to cure her both in body and in spirit. He uses unusual ways--tying her to the radiator(电暖炉). And by saving her, the man might just save himself.
43Now in limbo(中间过渡状态), he is not quite dead but invisible to the living, and his spirit can only watch as his mother and the police search for him, not knowing that he is only hours away from death.
44Fearing that Hogwarts' venerable(值得尊敬的)headmaster, Albus Dumbledore is lying about Voldemort's return in order to weaken his power and take his job, the Minister for Magic, Cornelius Fudge, appoints a new teacher to keep watch over Hogwarts' students.
45Now, three-and-a-half years on, they' ve found there will be some hope that they will be allowed to compete again: if they can put aside their differences, they can skate together in pairs figure skating.
答案:
41 D. [解析]解题的关键"romantic past and emotional present"对应"Deeply moving and extremely romantic","Ann Grant and her daughters"对应"mothers and daughters"。
42 A. [解析]解题的关键"left for dead, anxiety disorder"对应 "cure her both in body and in spirit"。
43 F. [解析]解题的关键"his body is left for dead"和标题"The invisible"对应"not quite dead but invisible"。
44 E. [解析]解题的关键"turn a blind eye to the news that Voldemort has returned"对应"1ying about Volde-mort's return"。
45 B. [解析]解题的关键"two figure skaters"对应"can skate together"."stripped and banned"对应"allowed to compete again"。

4. 基础写作
假设你是班长,学校学生会决定组织一次英语演讲比赛,请根据所给提示,用英语写一则通知。要点如下:
1.比赛目的:提高学生的英语口语水平。
2.参加者:高中学生。
3.报名时间与地点:10月30日以前,学生会办公室或向班里团支书报名。
4.比赛时间与地点:11月10日下午2:30,阅览室。
5.5位英语老师被邀为评委。
6.前5位优胜者获奖,并有机会参加今年暑假在北京举办的英语夏令营,与外籍老师交流。
(写作要求]
1.必须使用5个句子介绍全部所给的内容。
2.将5个句子组织成连贯的一篇短文。
3.使用必要的连接词。
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
答案:
Notice
In order to improve the students' oral English, the Students' Union has decided to organize an English-speaking contest among the students of senior grades.
It will be held in the reading-room at 2:30 p.m. on November 10th. Those who would like to take part in the contest may sign up in the office of the Students' Union or go to your league secretary before October 30th. We will invite five English teachers in our school as our judges and the first five winners will be given rewards and have a chance of going on a summer camp to be held in Beijing this summer vocation, offering more chances for speaking English with foreign teachers.
All the students of senior grades are welcome to the contest.
Students' Union



Unit 4 Global warming
一、语言要点
I单元要点预览(旨在让同学整体了解本单元要点)
词汇
部分 词语
辨析 1.consequence/result/effect/outcome 2. glance/gaze/glare/stare 词形
变化 1.agree v.同意 disagree v.不同意 agreement/disagreement n.同意/不同意 2. exist v.存在 existence n.存在 3.state v.陈述,说明 statement n.声明,阐述 4. environment n.环境 environmental adj.周围的,环境的 environmentalist n.环境保护主义者 重点
单词 8. phenomenon n. 現象
9. tend vt. 趋向, 往往是;照管, 护理
10. state vt.声明, 陈述
11. range n.行列, 范围;vt. 排列, 归类于
12. average adj.平均的
13. existence n.生存
14. advocate倡导,拥护
15. refresh v.(使)精神振作, (使)精力恢复, 更新
16. contribution n.捐献, 贡献, 投稿 重点
词组 come about 发生 quantities of大量的 result in导致 be opposed to反对
on behalf of代表......一方 put up with 忍受; 容忍so long as 只要  重点句子 1. Some byproducts of this process are called "greenhouse" gases, the most important one of which is carbon dioxide.
这个升温过程的一些副产品就叫 "温室"气体,其中最重要的就是二氧化碳. 重点语法 it的用法(II)(见语法专题) II 词语辨析 (旨在提供完形填空所需材料)
1). consequence/result/effect/outcome 【解释】
consequence强调因某件事而引起的后果,有时带贬义。
result普通用语,指某行动,计划或事件带来的最终结果。
effect与相对,指动作行为带来的后果或效应。
outcome侧重 某项活动,比赛的结果,结局 【练习】选择consequence/result/effect或outcome并用其适当的形式填空
1) The ________ of the game was beyond our expectation.
2) The _________ of the meeting was that no one should be dismissed.
3) The advertisements have much ________ on consumers' choice.
4) In _________ of laziness, he was fired.
Keys: 1) outcome 2) result 3) effect 4) consequence 2). glance/gaze/glare/stare 看,注视 【解释】
glance一瞥,匆匆一看,强调动作的短暂
gaze凝视,注视,因惊异或赞赏而长时间无意识地凝视某人或某事物
glare怒视,带有敌对或威胁的态度
stare盯着看,含有无礼或粗俗的意味。 【练习】选择glance/gaze/glare或stare,并用其适当的形式填空
1) They stood at the top of the hill, _______ at the splendid sunset.
2) The manager ______ at the document and signed down his name.
3) The dog _____ at the stranger and barked.
4) Don't _______ , it's rude!
Keys: 1) gazing 2) glanced 3) glared 4) stare III 词性变化 (旨在提供语法填空所需材料)
1.agree v.同意 disagree v.不同意 agreement/disagreement n.同意/不同意 2. exist v.存在 existence n.存在 3.state v.陈述,说明 statement n.声明,阐述 4. environment n.环境 environmental adj.周围的,环境的 environmentalist n.环境保护主义者 【练习】根据句子结构,用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空
1) The ________ pointed out that the change of ________ will cause certain great ________ disaster.(environment)
2) It was ______ that the new-elected president of U.S.A made a ________ announcing new policies to reduce the consequence of economy crisis.(state)
3) Though the two Party usually _______ with each other, they have reached an ________ on the levels of green house gases they will allow. (agree)
4) In the survey, people found it funny that many of the longest-lasting marriages in ______ are those between people who ________ in frequent quarrel.(exist)
keys: 1) environmentalist; environment; environmental 2) stated; statement 3) disagree; agreement 4) existence; exist IV 重点词汇 (旨在提供综合运用所需材料)
1. phenomenon n. 現象;奇迹,罕见的人才或事物 phenomena(pl.)
[典例]
1) Rain and snow are phenomena of the weather. 雨雪是天气现象。
2) Beethoven was a phenomenon among musicians.贝多芬是音乐家中的天才。
3) the phenomena of nature自然现象
4) a social phenomenon社会现象
[练习] 汉译英
1) 月蚀是一种罕见的现象。
________________________________________________________________________________________
2) 你能向我解释下这一奇怪的自然现象吗?
________________________________________________________________________________________
3) 尽管中途退出了2008年奥运会,刘翔依然是跨栏项目的罕见的人才。
________________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) An eclipse of the moon is a rare phenomenon. 2) Could you explain to me the strange natural phenomenon?
3) Though quitting in the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, Liu Xiang is still a phenomenon in hurdle racing.

2. tend vt. 趋向, 往往是;照管, 护理
[重点用法]
tendency n. 趋向,倾向(常与to/towards连用)
[典例]
1) Most of boys tend to enjoy playing basketball.大部分男孩都喜欢打篮球。
2) The older women tend to believe in strangers easily.老人更容易轻信陌生人。
3) A team of medical workers were sent to tend the survivors of wenchuan Earthquake.
一组医护人员被派去照料汶川地震的幸存者。
4) Nowadays there is a growing tendency for people to shop on internet.如今人们网上购物有增加的趋势
[练习] 汉译英
1) 处于压力下的人更容易发挥自己的全部潜能。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 当老板不在时请他照看一个商店
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)People under stress tend to develop their full range of potential. 2) He was required to tend a store in the owner's absence.

3. state vt.声明, 陈述 n.状况,情况;国家
[重点用法]
state+名词/that从句/wh-从句
statement n. 声明, 陈述
[典例]
1) She is in a terrible state today. 她今天心情不好。
2) the head of state国家首脑
3) He has publicly stated his support for the policy. 他已公开声明他会支持那项政策。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 合同清楚地叙述了那项工作应在何时完成。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 我听见那位官员说不接纳儿童。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) The contract stated when the work should be finished. 2) I heard the official state that they would
not accept children.

4. range n.行列, 范围;vt. 排列, 归类于
[重点用法]
beyond the range of...超越......的范围
out of one's range某人达不到的
range oneself站在......的方面
range from... to ... / between... and ...从......到......不等
[练习] 根据汉语提示,补全英语句子。
1) The shop keeps____________________(商品品种多) .
2)_____________(年龄范围)i s from six to twelve years old.
3)The temperature__________________________(在15度到35度之间).
4)We should _______________(列身于; 站在......的方面)on the side of law and order.
Keys: 1)a wide range of goods 2) The age range 3) ranges from 15 to 35 degrees 4)range ourselves

5. average adj.平均的;一般的,普通的,中等的 n.平均,平均数
[典例]
1) His average result of this three subjects is 96. 他三科的平均成绩是96。
2) The average of 4, 8, and 60 is 24。 4、8和60的平均数是24。
[重点用法]
above the average 高于平均水平
below the average在一般水平以下
on the average平均, 按平均数计算; 一般地说
[练习] 汉译英
1) 他在我们班处于中等位置。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2)这一地区农民的收入高于全省的平均水平。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) He is an average student in our class. 2) The income of the farmers in this area is above the average of the province.

6. existence n.生存
[典例]
1) Anything in existence is reasonable.所有的存在都是合理的。
2) In the middle age, no one doubted about the existence of God中世纪时没人怀疑上帝的存在
[重点用法]
in existence存在
exist v.存在
[练习] 汉译英
1) 富裕和贫穷同时存在于这个世界里。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 人们认为他是这个世界上最好心的人。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) Wealth and poverty exist at the same time in the world. 2) He is believed to be the kindest person in existence.

7. refresh v.(使)精神振作, (使)精力恢复, 更新
[典例]
1) When tired, you can refresh yourself with a cup of tea困时喝杯茶提神
2) Refresh storage battery in case of being out of energy halfway.给蓄电池充电以免半路没电。
3) The host refreshed our teacups. 主人又为我们斟茶。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 长时间工作后,一杯冰水使他精神振作。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 有时一件小东西也会唤起人们的记忆
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) A cup of icy water refreshed him after a long time's work. 2) Sometimes, a small thing all can refresh your memory

V. 词组
1. come about 发生
【典例】
1) How did this come about? 这是怎么发生的?
2) I don't know how it came about but I've got a dent in the rear of my car.
我不知道是怎么回事,但我的汽车后部有了一个凹痕。
[短语归纳]
come along 出现, 发生;
come out 出来, 长出;
come to 达到;
come to oneself 苏醒, 醒悟;
come up with 赶上, 提出
【链接高考】It's already 10 o'clock. I wonder how it ____________ that she was two hours late on such a short trip.
A. came over B. came out C. came about D. came up
答案与分析:C。考查动词come构成的短语。A为"过去";B为"出来";D为"出现,到来";
为"发生"。
2. quantities of 大量的
[典例]
1) Before they enter an entrance examination, they have to do quantities of exercise.
在参加入学考试前,他们得做大量的练习。
2) He drinks large quantities of water every day.他每天都喝大量的水。
[短语归纳]
A (large) quantity of /quantities of+名词(可数/不可数)
A mount of/ amounts of+不可数名词
注意:以上短语修饰名词充当主语时,由quantity/amount的单复数决定谓语的单复数。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 桌上摆满大量的食物。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 在这个地区仅提供少量的牛奶
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) Large quantities of food were on the table. 2) Only a small quantity of milk is offered in this area.

3. result in 导致
【典例】
1) Stress and tiredness often result in a lack of concentration. 紧张和疲劳常使人精神不集中。
2) Acting before thinking always results in failure. 做事不先考虑总会导致失败.
3) The accident resulted in the death of two people. 这场意外事故造成两人死亡。
4) Excessive dosage of this drug can result in injury to the liver. 这种药使用过量会损害肝脏。
[短语归纳]
lead to作"导致"
result from 由...产生;
as result 因此; 结果;
as a result of作为...的结果; 由于...
without result 无效地, 毫无结果地;
[练习]根据汉语提示,补全英语句子。(每空一词)
1) 结果他们拯救了这座森林里90%的树木。
_____ _____ _____, they saved 90% of the trees in the forest.
2) 我一直在想法打开箱子,但到现在这没有没打开。
I've been trying to open the box, but _____ _____ so far.
3) 此项工程的搁置已导致了6个人被解雇。
The shelving of the project have_____ _____ six redundancy.
4) 她勤奋苦读,终于进了中山大学。
_____ _____ _____ of her hard work was a place at Zhongshan University.
Keys: 1) As a result 2) without result 3) resulted in 4)As a result

4. be opposed to 反对
【典例】
1) All the states in UN were opposed to the war launched by Israel.所有的联合国成员国都反对以色列发起的这场战争。
2) Many residents in Guangzhou are opposed to the plan of tearing down the old buildings.
广州许多居民反对拆毁旧房子的计划。
[短语归纳]
表示反对:disagree with; object to; be against
表示赞成:agree with; be in favour of; be for
[练习] 汉译英
1) 热爱和平的人们都反对核反应。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 我们赞成她升为总裁
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)People loving peace are opposed to nuclear weapon. 2)We are in favor of her promotion to president.

5. on behalf of 代表......一方
【典例】
1) My husband could not be here tonight, but l want to thank you on his behalf.我丈夫今晚因故不能前来, 我代表他向你们致谢。
2) We attended the global conference on behalf of our country.
[练习] 汉译英
1) 很荣幸在这儿代表我的学校演出。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 那个英雄的妻子代替她死去的丈夫接受了这枚勋章。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) I'm greatly honored to put on performance here on behalf of my school. 2) The hero's wife accepted the medal on behalf of her dead husband.

6.put up with 忍受;容忍
【典例】
1) I'm not going to put up with this! 我再也受不了啦!
2) We have to put up with her bad temper. 我们只得忍受她的坏脾气。
3) Noise is coming to the point where we can't put up with it. 噪音快到我们无法忍受的地步。
[短语归纳]
put aside 节省;put away储存;put down写下
put off 延期; put out 熄灭; put up 举起;
【链接高模】Tom would like to find somewhere to work because he can not _____ the boss.
A. come up with B. catch up with C. keep up with D. put up with
答案与分析:D。考查词组辨析。根据所给语境可知他无法 "忍受"这个老板。A项表示"想出"
[练习] 汉译英
1) 在这种情况下,我们不得不忍受不便之处.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 不允许拖延付清帐单
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) In that situation, we had to put up with the inconvenience. 2) We are not allowed to put off paying the bills.

7. so long as 只要
【典例】
1) As long as you don't betray me, I'll do whatever you ask me to (do).
只要你不出卖我,要我做什么我都愿意。
2) As long as live, I will help you. 只要我活着,我都会帮助你。
3) As long as you drive carefully, you will be very safe. 如果你开车小心,你就会很安全。
4) I don't mind as long as it doesn't rain. 只要不下雨就行了。
[短语归纳]
on condition that ...在......的条件下
[练习] 汉译英
1)如果我挣到足够的钱,我就出国。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2)只要你能给我们合适的原因,我们就会帮助你。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)I will go abroad on condition that I earn enough money. 2) We will help you on condition that/as long as you can offer us the proper reason.
VI 重点句子 (旨在提供句子结构等所需材料)
Some byproducts of this process are called "greenhouse" gases, the most important one of which is carbon dioxide. 这个升温过程的一些副产品就叫 "温室"气体,其中最重要的就是二氧化碳.
[解释]one/all/every/each/part... of which(whom)引导的定语从句,表示"他(它)们中的一个/所有/每/部分......"
[典例]
1) I have three good friends, all of whom have emigrated to U.S.A.我有三个好朋友,他们都移民美国了。
2) Here are many kitties, two of which are yellow.这有许多小猫,其中两只是黄色的。
[练习] 汉译英
我有三个叔叔,其中最年轻的叔叔三年前去了澳洲.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Key: I have three uncles, the youngest one of whom went to Australia three years ago.
二、课文要点
1课文词汇等填空(旨在复习本课文中的单词拼写和主要词语等)
根据课文内容完成下面语法填空,注意单词拼写和词语用法:
When 1 (compare) with most natural changes, that the temperature of the earth rose about one degree Fahrenheit during the 20th century is quite shocking. And it's human activity 2 has caused this 3 (全球的) warming rather 4 a random but natural 5 (现象). Dr Janice Foster explains that we add huge 6 of extra carbon dioxide to the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels. From the second 7 (图表)and the discovery of Charles Keeling, all scientists believe that the burning of more and more fossil fuels has resulted 8 the increase in carbon dioxide. Greenhouse gases continue to build up. Some think that the trend would be a 9 (灾难). On the other hand, George Hambley 10 (声明) that more carbon dioxide would encourage a greater range of animals and bring us a better life.
答案:1.compared 2.that 3.global 4.rather 5.phenomenon
6.quantities 7.graph 8.in 9.catastrophe 10.states
  
2课文大意概括 (旨在训练用30个单词概括大意的能力)
阅读课文,试着用30来个单词概括课文大意或翻译下面短文。
通过文章我们得知,地球的温度正在上升。它也给我们展示不同的想法和根据数据图表分析全球气候变暖的原因,地球的温度和增加可能造成的影响。
   From the passage we know that ______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

答案:From the passage we know that the temperature of the earth is rising. It also shows us different ideas about global warming and analyzes the causes of the earth's increased temperature and the possible effects according to the data from the graphs.
3课文佳句背诵与仿写 (旨在培养对难句的理解和运用能力)
1.【原句】There is no doubt that the earth is becoming warmer and that it is human activity that has caused this global warming rather than a random but natural phenomenon. 毫无疑问,地球是在变暖,而地球变暖正是人类活动导致而成,并非是一种无规律的自然现象。
[模仿要点] 句子结构:there is no doubt that ... and that... 句式 + it is ...that 强调句
【模仿1】毫无疑问,圣诞节的庆祝活动是一个很好的学习方式的西方文化;而且庆祝圣诞节,让我们的生活更有趣。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:There is no doubt that the celebration of Christmas is a good way of learning the western culture and that it is the celebration of Christmas that makes our life more interesting.
【模仿2】毫无疑问,太多的电脑游戏会对学生的健康有不良影响,而且玩电脑太多花费他们太多的时间导致花在学习上的时间太少。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:There is no doubt that too many computer games can have a bad effect on students' health and that it is playing too much computer that costs them too much time resulting in too little time on study.

2.【原句】Some byproducts of this process are called "greenhouse" gases, the most important one of which is carbon dioxide.这个升温过程的一些副产品就叫做"温室"气体,其中最重要的是二氧化碳。
[模仿要点] 句子结构:主句,+ the most + adj. of + which 引导的定语从句
【模仿1】一些可能的措施应采取以防止我们的地球越来越热,而其中最重要的措施之一是限制私家车的使用。

_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:Some possible actions should be taken to keep our earth from getting warm, the most important one of which is to limits the use of private cars.
【模仿2】一些良好的学习方法应采取以改善你的学习,而其中最有效的方法之一是与你的同学讨论。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案: Some good learning methods should be adopted to improve your study, the most effective one of which is to discuss with your classmates.

3. 【原句】They also agree that it is the burning of more and more fossil fuels that has resulted in this increase in carbon dioxide.他们还赞同正是由于越来越多燃烧化石燃料导致了二氧化碳的增加。
[模仿要点] 句子结构:宾语从句中的强调句
【模仿1】文章表明是人类的活动对村庄造成的环境破坏。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案: The passage indicates that it is human's activities that has resulted in the environmental destruction to the village.
【模仿2】我们都同意的是年轻一代应该负起振兴国家的责任。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:We all agree that it is the younger generation that should take up the responsibility to build up the country.
三、单元自测
1完形填空
  阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从21-30各题所给的A、B、C和D项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
词数:161 完成时间:15分钟 难度:*** Wouldn't it be great if we didn't have to remember passwords (密码) ever again? If we could just sit in front of our computers and be 21 logged in (登录)? Crave mentions how NEC Soft Biode Logon system uses face recognition technology to log you on to Windows, rather than using a 22 . All you need is a webcam and your pretty face to 23 your PC. No more 24 , confusing passwords to remember or change every few months.
After doing a little research, I found this type of 25 already available to consumers via a relatively 26 application called Face Code. The 27 requires the use of a webcam to recognize and log PC users into their systems. You can add as many 28 as you want, provided they each have a Windows account. If the system 29 to recognize your 30 , you can recall the Windows user name and password by using a hot-key combination.
21. A. automatically B. personally C. correctly D. occasionally
22. A. face B. password C. software D. system
23. A. access B. connect C. recognize D. remember
24. A. simple B. complicated C. special D. useful
25. A. computer B. technology C. password D. application
26. A. independent B. infrequent C. inexpensive D. instant
27. A. account B. consumer C. designer D. software
28. A. users B. passwords C. systems D. computers
29. A. begins B. tries C. fails D. stops
30. A. account B. name C. password D. face
[答案解析]
21.A 根据上下文可知,此处意思为:如果我们只需坐在电脑前而无需输入密码就可以自动登录该多好。A自动地;B个人的;C正确的;D偶尔的,临时的。
22.B 由上文可知,因"用脸部识别技术来帮你登录"了,所以"不需要用密码"。
23.A 由上文可知此处所选词的意思相当于上文中的log in(登录),故选A,存取(信息),访问。
24.B 由文章开头第-句话可知密码难记,同时根据本句中的并列词confusing(令人糊涂的,混乱的)可知答案为B(复杂的)。
25.B 根据上文中提到的...uses face recognition technology...可知。
26.C 本句话的意思为通过使用一种叫做"FaceCode"的相对便宜的应用程序,用户就可以使用这种技术了。根据本句中available to customers可以判断出此处强调的是价格。application在本句中为应用程序,应用软件的意思。
27.D 根据上下文可知,此处所选的词意思相当于上句话中的application,故选D,程序系统,软件。
28.A 根据下句话中的they each have a Windows account可以判断出此处是指可以添加多个电脑用户。
29.C fail to ,在此表示 couldn't 的词义。
30.D 如果系统不能认出你的面孔,你还可以用热键组合来取回你的用户名和密码。
2语法填空
语法填空(共10小题,每小题1.5分,满分15分)
  阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填入一个适当的词或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空,并将答案填写在答题卡标号为31-40的相应位置上。
词数:209 完成时间:8分钟 难度:*** Dear Sir
Being completely deaf myself, I read your report of the poor conditions of the deaf and mute (哑)who were gathering in New York 31 (beg). I supposed that 32 could not happen here in Australia. 33 , two years later, I was having dinner in a restaurant in Sydney 34 a person entered and started handing out plastic jewellery (首饰) and a note to people at each table. The main idea of the note was, "I am unable to speak and 35 (hear) in a world of voices and music. 36 you kindly buy these things?" When he came to my table, I questioned him 37 sign language. He was a little surprised. Then he said in a low voice "don't talk" (which I could read from his lip movement) and moved away.
Please do not 38 ( take ) in by those people. Please do not give them any money. They are 39 deaf nor representative (代表) of the deaf. They make use of people's pity, and 40 they are doing will do harm to all that has been achieved by the deaf in the last 20 years-including putting this practice to an end.
Truly yours,
John Williams
答案:
31.begging 32.it 33.However 34.when 35.hear 36.Would 37.in 38.be taken
39.neither 40.what
31.begging,现在分词作伴随状语。
32.it, 代词,代替前文提到的聋哑人聚在一起乞讨这回事。
33.However,表转折,"然而,可是"。
34.when,考查be doing sth when.../be aboutto do sth.when....的结构,表"正在/即将 去做......突然/就在那时......"。
35.hear,and连接两个动词不定式to speak和(to)hear。
36.Would,Would you please/kindly do sth? 表客气婉转的请求。
37.in,介词,in sigh language "用手势语",表方式:
38.be taken,由该句中的by可知,此处考查动词的被动语态。
39.neither, neither...nor...是固定结构,表"既不......也不......;两者都不......"
40.what,考查由what引导的主语从句。

3阅读理解
  阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
词数:343 完成时间:6分钟 难度:** These days, it's easy to fly across oceans for vacation. Centuries ago, however, crossing the open seas required thorough and accurate planning, handmade boats, and courage. Scientists and historians have long been looking for clues to explain who crossed which oceans first. When it comes to the trip between Polynesia (玻利尼西亚中太平洋群岛) and South America, chickens may have been among the first ocean voyagers, according to new evidence.
After studying an ancient chicken bone, anthropologists (人类学家) from the University of Auckland in New Zealand now say that people and chickens traveled from Polynesia to what is now Chile (智利) by about 620 years ago. By then, the Inca people were already living in South America, but the Polynesians would have been the first to get there by sea. Previous theories claimed that European explorers and their chickens sailed to South America first -- but those voyagers didn't arrive until about a century later.
In 2002, archaeologists dug up 50 chicken bones from a site in Chile called El Arenal. The team from New Zealand analyzed one to these bones. According to their calculations, the bone is about 650 years old.
The researchers also compared the genetic material, or DNA, from the South American chicken bone with DNA from 11 chicken bones that had been found on the Polynesian islands of Tonga and American Samoa. These islands are 6,000 miles west of Chile. The bones found on the Polynesian islands are been 600 and 2,000 years old.
Results of the comparisons showed that the chicken bones from both the Polynesian and South American sites had part of DNA in common. The researchers found the same part of DNA in feathers of two living chickens in Chile that belong to a modem breed that lays blue eggs. That DNA evidence suggests a close relationship among the chickens.
"However, the weight of scientific evidence is now behind the hypothesis (假设) that it was seafaring ( 航海) Polynesians who sailed from the islands to South America and returned," says archaeologist Patrick V. Kirch of the University of California, Berkeley.
41. What is the passage mainly about?
A. It was difficult for ancient people to travel between Polynesia and South America.
B. The first people who lived in Chile and Polynesia.
C. Valuable chicken bones have been found in Chile.
D. Chickens -- the first to travel between Polynesia and South America.
42. When did the first European explorers reach South America?
A. About 620 years ago. B. About 2.000 years ago.
C. About 600 years ago. D. About 520 years ago.
43. People found that chickens were among the first to travel from Polynesia to South America by ___________.
A. comparing the colors of eggs laid by chickens from the two places
B. comparing the DNA of chicken bones dug up on the Polynesian islands and that of the chicken bones from South America
C. studying some previous theories
D. asking the natives of South America
44. What do we learn from the passage?
A. European explorers and their chickens were the first to sail to South America.
B. Chickens in South America have the same ancestors as those in Polynesia.
C. In ancient times, a 6,000-mile channel separated Polynesia from South America.
D. Before the Polynesians arrived in South America, the Inca people had lived there. '
45. Why was it difficult for people to travel across the oceans in ancient times, according to the passage?
1) It was difficult to take many chickens as food.
2) People had difficulty making careful and detailed sailing plans.
3) People lacked maps and the knowledge of weather forecasting.
4) People had to make boats by hand.
5) It took great determination to cross an ocean.
A. 1) 4) 5) B. 2) 3) 4) C. 2) 4) 5) D. 1) 2) 3)
答案:
现在飞越海洋是一件轻而易举的事情,然而几个世纪以前渡过海洋需要周密的计划、人造船只和勇气。是谁最先渡过了哪个海洋一直是科学家和历史学家研究的话题,最近研究结果发现鸡可能也是最早渡过玻利尼西亚和南美之间的海洋的。
41. D。 主旨大意题。本文在第一段点题,根据第一段第四句"When it comes to the trip between Polynesia and South America, chickens may have been among the first ocean voyagers, according to new evidence."并根据后面科学家对在玻利尼西亚群岛和南美洲挖出的鸡骨进行DNA鉴定等,可知D选项正确。
42. D。 事实细节题。由文章第二段可知第一批从Polynesia到Chile的人是在大约620年前,而根据第二段最后一句可知,第一批欧洲人晚了大约一个世纪,因此他们是约在520年前到的南美洲的。
43. B。 事实细节题。由文章倒数第三段"The researchers also compared the genetic material, or DNA, from the South American chicken bone with DNA from 11 chicken bones that had been found on the Polynesian islands of Tonga and American Samoa."和倒数第二段可知科学家是通过对两地挖出的鸡骨进行DNA鉴定发现这个结果的。
44. D。 事实细节题。由第二段第二句"By then, the Inca people were already living in South America ..."可知the Inca people在玻利尼西亚人到达南美洲之前,已经在那里居住了。
45. C。 事实细节题。由第一段"Centuries ago, however, crossing the open seas required thorough and accurate planning, handmade boats, and courage."可知,跨海之旅要有计划、有船,而且还需要勇气,所以答案选择C。
4. 读写任务
阅读下面的短文,然后按照要求写一篇150词左右的英语短文:
I like water gymnastics best for many reasons. First of all, I am a good swimmer. Therefore, I am interested in all kinds of Olympic swimming sports. Especially, I am fond of water gymnastics for two major reasons-the amazing movements and those sexy and those very beautiful women swimmers. Most importantly, I like the great music and their amazing performance in water ballet. When I watch this Olympic sport, I can learn their professional techniques in swimming.
For example, swimmers' performance is evaluated based on a series of predetermined elements. Arm sections and figures, similar to those of figure skating, are also required, and all elements must be presented in a specific order. Because synchronized (同步的) swimming routines require exceptional breath control, judges also take into consideration the ability of the swimmers to preserve the illusion (n.幻想) of effortlessness while holding their breath for up to two minutes.
[写作内容]
1.以约30个词概括短文的要点。
2.然后以120个词写一篇英语短文谈谈你喜欢的体育运动项目,并包括如下要点:
1)你喜欢哪一种体育运动项目。
2)说明你的理由。
3)该体育运动项目对你的日常生活造成的某些影响和感想。
[写作要求]
1.作文中可使用自己的亲身经历或虚构的故事,也可以参照阅读材料的内容.但不得直接引用原文中的句子;标题自定。
2.作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称。
[评分标准]概括准确。语言规范,内容合适,篇章连贯。
[写作辅导]
1.写作有可能用到的主要短语和单词:羽毛球badminton,排球volleyball,足球football,体操 gymnastics,网球tennis,跳高high jumping,射击/射箭5hooung,游泳swimming,棒球baseball,最喜欢的favourite,表演performance,对......影响have an effect on sth/sb.
2.本文的概要必须包含以下要点:I like water gymnastics best for many reasons. / Especially, I am fond of water gymnastics for two major reasons - the amazing movements and those sexy and those very beautiful women swimmers./ For example, swimmers' performance is evaluated based on a series of predetermined elements.
3.本文要注意,概要一定要根据文段的时态来写。同时,绝对不能抄袭原文的句子:文章中描述的是你喜欢哪一种体育运动项目和理由、感想等等,都属于评论性文字和结论性的观点,故多用一般现在时或一般将来时态:
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
答案:
I Have Fallen in Deep Love with Football
In the above passage, the writer tells us the reasons why he likes water gymnastics, such as the amazing movements and those sexy and those very beautiful women swimmers.
Football is a very popular sport in the world and I think I have fallen in deep love with it, which makes me feel so crazy. I have spent lots of time doing many things related to football, like watching football matches, reading newspapers and magazines, searching the Web for more information about football, which certainly disturbs my normal study. I can't concentrate so much on my lessons, falling asleep in class the next day and not finishing nay homework on time that I have almost lost interest in my studies.
How should I deal with the contradiction between my studies and hobbies? Some helpful suggestions are needed. Meanwhile, I quite regret that I shouldn't have been addicted to football so much. Maybe, I xafill get out of the trouble with my efforts and fall in love with my study again.




Unit 5 The power of nature
一、语言要点
I单元要点预览(旨在让同学整体了解本单元要点)
词汇
部分 词语
辨析 1.living / alive / live 2. force / power / strength 词形
变化 1. volcano n.火山 volcanic adj. 火山的 volcanology n.火山学
volcanologist n.火山学家 2. erupt v.爆发 eruption n.(火山,战争)爆发 3.absolute adj.绝对的,完全的 absolutely adv.绝对地 4. anxious adj.忧虑的 anxiety n.担心,焦虑 5.bathe v.洗澡,游泳 bath n.洗澡 6.comfort v.&n.安慰;使缓和 comfortable adj.舒适的 uncomfortable adj.不舒服的;不舒适的 重点
单词 1. equipment n.装备,设备
2. appoint vt.约定; 任命, 委任
3. evaluate vt.评估,评价,估计
4. precious adj.贵重的,珍贵的
5. panic v.惊慌n.惊慌,恐慌
6. diverse adj.多种多样的,不同的
7. guarantee vt.保证,担保 重点
词组 compare......with与......比较 burn to the ground全部烧毁
make one's way前往 spare no effort不遗余力,尽力
impress sb. with sth. 使某人铭记某事  重点句子 1. I was about to go back to sleep when suddenly my bedroom became as bright as day.
2. It is said that this boy, who had a great gift for languages and persuasion, is the father of the Manchu people. 重点语法 动词形式ing作状语(见语法专题) II 词语辨析 (旨在提供完形填空所需材料)
1). living / alive / live adj.活的 【解释】
living可作定语又可作表语;可用于指人也可用于指物,指人时可表示"健在"此时指和"死"相对的活着。
alive 可作表语,后置定语或补语。多用于指人,往往指虽有死的可能,但目前还是活着的,强调"活着的"本身。
live主要用于指物,表示"活的、有生命的",还可以表示"实况转播的"。一般只用作定语,放在名词前。 【练习】选择living / alive或live并用其适当的形式填空
1) A ______ language should be learned orally.
2) The old man is still _______.
3) It is a ______ fish.
4) He was caught ______and the others were killed.
5) This is a ______ TV program.
Keys: 1. living 2. alive 3. live s 4. alive 5. live 2). force / power / strength n.力,力量 【解释】
force指发挥出来的,侧重于外在的力,如大自然的力、势力,也指文章、论点的有力。
power侧重于能力、权利、动力、政治、法律力量;
strength指身体内部的体力 【练习】选择force / power 或strength,并用其适当的形式填空
1) He has lost the ______ of speech. 他丧失了语言能力。
2) For a small lady she has surprising ______. 她个子虽小但力大惊人。
3) The ______ of the volcano eruption caused much great damage to the small town.
Keys: 1) power 2) strength 3) force III 词性变化 (旨在提供语法填空所需材料)
1. volcano n.火山 volcanic adj. 火山的 volcanology n.火山学
volcanologist n.火山学家 2. impress v. impression n. impressive adj. 3.absolute adj.绝对的,完全的 absolutely adv.绝对地 4. anxious adj.忧虑的 anxiety n.担心,焦虑 5.bathe v.洗澡,游泳 bath n.洗澡 6.courage n.勇气 encourage v.鼓舞,鼓励 encouragement n.鼓励,奖励 7.comfort v.&n.安慰;使缓和 comfortable adj.舒适的 uncomfortable adj.不舒服的;不舒适的 【练习】根据句子结构,用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空
1) __________ usually go to live _______ to take the temperature of the boiling rock inside.(volcano)
2) You look so tired. Hurry to go into the ________ and take a hot ________ to refresh yourself. (bath)
3) The young mother was so _______ about her baby that the thought filled her with ______. (anxious)
4) His _______ speech about the doctor who worked heart and soul for Tibetan people ________ us so much that it gave us a deep ________.(impress)
5) At first I didn't have ________ to do well at school. Thanks to his _________, I'm getting pretty well now, so I phone to thank her for her _______ advice. (encourage)
6) In order to ______ herself, she bad a ________ massage and soon the _______ feeling disappeared.(comfortable)
keys:1) Volcanologists; volcanoes; 2) bathroom; bath 3) anxious; anxiety 4) impressive; impressed; impression 5) courage; encouragement; encouraging 6) comfort; comfortable; uncomfortable IV 重点词汇 (旨在提供综合运用所需材料)
1. equipment n.[U]
[典例]
1) After a fire broke out in the lab, a lot of equipment was damaged.
实验室发生火灾后,许多设备都毁坏了.
2) A good sleeping bag is an essential part of every camper's equipment.
一个完好的睡袋是每个露宿者必不可少的装备。
[重点用法]
equip sb./sth. with sth. 用...装备起来./使具备...
[练习] 汉译英
1)士兵们配备着最新式的武器。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 我们使孩子们受到良好的教育。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3) 这位旅行家装备齐全。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)The soldiers were equipped with the latest weapons. 2) We equip our children with a good education. 3) The traveller was well equipped.

2. appoint vt.约定; 任命, 委任
[典例]
1) He was appointed mayor of the city. 他被任命为市长。
2) Please appoint a time for the meeting请你约定开会时间
[重点用法]
break an/ one's appointment 违约, 失约
have an appointment with sb. at要在某时间和某人有约会
keep an /one's appointment 守约
Make/ fix an appointment with sb. 与某人约会
by appointment 按照约定, 照章
hold an appointment 担任某职

3. evaluate vt.评估,评价,估计
[重点用法]
evaluation n. [C] [U] 评估,评价,评估报告
evaluate one's ability 评估某人的能力;
evaluate the value/quality of sth. 评估某物的价值/质量
[典例]
1) I cannot evaluate his ability without seeing his work.没见过他的工作,我无法评估他的能力。
2) They made an intensive evaluation of the health care program.他们对医疗保健计划进行了深入的评估.
[练习] 汉译英
1) 让我们评定一下此证据的价值。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 这个研究项目进行了不过三个月,所以要对它的成绩作出评价为时尚早。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3) 我努力为自己的人生做一个真实的评价.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)Let's evaluate the evidence. 2) The research project has only been under way for three months, so it's too early to evaluate its success. 3) I attempted an honest evaluaation of my own life.

4. precious adj.贵重的,珍贵的
[重点用法]
preciously adv. 昂贵地;
preciousness n. 珍贵
同义词:expensive adj. 花费的, 昂贵的
[典例]
1) You should make good use of every precious minute to study.
你应很好利用宝贵的每一分钟去学习。
2) That old book is my most precious possession. 那本旧书是我最珍贵的财产。
3) My time is precious; I can only give you a few minutes. 我的时间很宝贵,我只能见你几分钟。
【链接高模】I'm sure this painting is not by Picasso. It's only an unsuccessful fake (赝品) and it's ______. A. priceless B. invaluable C. worthless D. precious
答案与分析:C。根据含义"这只是一个赝品,不值多少钱",应选worthless不值钱。priceless无价格的,invaluable无法估价的,precious珍贵的。

[练习] 汉译英
1) 我没有碰你的那台宝贝电脑!
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 这个玩具娃娃对我小妹妹来说很珍贵。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3) 在广州,清新的空气是宝贵的东西。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) I didn't touch your precious computer! 2)The doll is very precious to my little sister. 3)Fresh air is precious in Guangzhou.

5. panic (panicked; panicked) v.惊慌n.惊慌,恐慌
[重点用法]
in a panic感到惊慌;惊恐地
[典例]
1) The children panicked when the plans flied over the city.
当飞机飞过城市的上空,孩子们惊慌失措.
2) The thunder panicked the baby.雷声吓坏了婴儿
3) People in panic had nothing to do but wait for death.惊恐万分的人们只好坐以待毙.
[练习] 汉译英
1) 当意识到自己的钱包被偷了,这个农民感到很惊慌。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 当大地摇晃时,所有的人们都惊慌逃散。
________________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) The peasant panicked when he realized he had the wallet stolen. 2) All the people fled in a panic as the earth shook.

6. diverse adj.多种多样的,不同的
[典例]
1) Her interests are very diverse. 她的兴趣非常广泛。
2) They are the people from diverse cultures. 他们是些有着不同文化背景的人。
3) The program deals with subjects as diverse as pop music and Beijing Opera.
节目涉及从流行音乐到京剧这样形形色色的题材。
[重点用法]
diversity n. 差异, 多样性;
diversify v. 使多样化, 作多样性的投资
various adj. 不同的, 各种各样的, 多方面的, 多样的;
different adj. 不同的
[练习]用diverse, diversity, diversify填空(单词可重复使用,有的单词也可以不用)
1) There are _______ opinions about it.
2) Hill and woods ________ the landscape.
3) A factory must try to _________ for further development.
4) A great _______ of computers be made in Guangzhou.
Keys: 1) diverse 2) diversify 3) diversify 4) diversity

7. guarantee vt.保证,担保 n.保证, 保证书,保修
[重点用法]
guarantor 担保人;保证人
stand guarantee for ...替...担任保证人;
guarantee of sth./that ......的保证;
guarantee sth against sth. 许诺......反对......;
bank guarantee 银行担保;
offer one's house as a guarantee以房屋为担保品;
[典例]
1) Blue skies are not always a guarantee of fine weather. 蔚兰的天空并不永远保证晴朗的天气。
2) Many shopkeepers guarantee satisfaction to customers. 许多店主对顾客保证满意。
3) We cannot guarantee the punctual arrival of trains in fogy weather. 雾天我们不能保证火车准时到达。
[练习]根据汉语提示,补全英语句子。(每空一词)
1)This computer has a_____ _____(保修两年) .
2) South winds in winter are a _____ _____ _____(下雨的迹象) in these parts.
Keys: (1)two-year guarantee (2) guarantee of rain
V 重点词组 (旨在提供综合运用所需材料)
1. compare......with 将......与......比较(强调将两者进行比较)
[短语归纳]
compare A to B将...比作...(强调比喻)
compared to/with与......相比较起来(在句中充当状语成分,用过去分词,介词可互换)
[典例]
1) Man's life is often compared to a candle. 人生常被喻为蜡烛。
2) I compared the copy with the original, but there was not much difference.
我比较了复印件和原件,但是差别不是很大。
3) Compared with/to boys, girls are more quiet and shy.相比男孩,女孩子要更文静害羞些.
【链接高考】_______ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all.
A. Compare B. When comparing C. Comparing D. When compared
答案与分析:D。句意:"当和整个地球的面积比起来,最大的大洋根本就不大了。"the biggest ocean是句子的主语,与动词compare是动宾关系,因此要用过去分词。
[练习] 汉译英
1) 在许多方面城市生活比不上在乡村生活。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2) 诗人在他诗歌中把他的情人比作玫瑰花。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3) 与旧时相比,我们这个社会更加文明了.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)Living in a town can't compare with living in the country in many respects. 2)The poet compares his lover to a rose in his poems. 3)Compared with the ancient days, our society becomes more civilized.

2. burn to the ground全部烧毁
[短语归纳]
burn up(因热度过高)烧坏;烧毁;燃得更旺
burn away继续燃烧;
burn down 全部焚毁; 火势减弱;
burn itself out烧尽; 烧完;
burn oneself out耗尽精力, 精疲力竭;
burn one's face in the sun 晒黑了脸;
burn one's money把钱挥霍掉
[典例]
1) Everybody is burning to know the good news. 大家都急于想知道这则好消息。
2) Don't leave the gas on you might burn the house down. 别忘了关煤气炉--不然会把房子烧掉的。
3) The house burnt down in half an hour. 那所房子在半小时之内就被焚为平地。
[练习]根据汉语提示,补全英语句子。
1) Without the control of his parents, the gambler _____________(将钱挥霍一空)in a week.
2) The fire was _____ _____(烧得更旺了) cheerfully in the grate.
3) Rumor has it that the factory ______________ (被大火夷为平地了).
Keys: 1) burnt his money 2) burning up 3) has been burnt to the ground

3. make one's way前往;非常艰难地行进;有出息
[短语归纳]
by the way 顺便说说;
by way of 途经;
go out of one's way 尽力;
mend one's ways 改邪归正;
out of the way反常的;
[典例]
1) If you want to make your way in the world, you must learn to work hard while you are still young.
你如果想有出息,年轻的时候就要学会勤奋。
2) Will you be able to make your way to Taiwan?你能自己去台湾吗?
3) She hesitated, but made her way forward. 她犹豫了一下,还是向前走去。
4) The Red Army made their way from the south of China to the northwest, which is called the Long March. 中国工农红军从中国南方艰难地走到西北,这就叫做长征。
[练习]根据汉语提示,补全英语句子。(每空一词)
1)我们沿着山涧小路朝山顶走时,迷路了.
We lost our way when we _____ _____ _____ along the path to the top of the mountain.
2) 他穿过人群向我们打招呼。
He _____ _____ _____ through the crowd to greet us.
Keys: 1) made our way 2) made his way

4. impress sb. with sth. 使某人铭记某事
[短语归纳]
be impressed by为......所感动;对......有印象
make an impression on sb. that 给某人留下......印象
[典例]
1) The song impresses me with the old days in college.这首歌使我记起了大学里以往的日子。
2) All the tourists are impressed by the amazing sunset.所有的游客都被美妙的日落景象迷住了。
3) His talking and appearance made an impression on us that he had ever received a good education.他的言行举止让我们感觉到他曾经受过很好的教育。
[练习] 汉译英
1)我父亲让我铭记艰苦劳动的价值。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2)我们为英雄的事迹深深地感动着.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
3)老师的第一节课让我们觉得他是一个很有幽默感的人.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) My father impressed me with the value of hard work. 2) We are deeply impressed by the hero's deeds. 3)The teacher's first lecture gave us an impression that he was a person full of humor sense.
VI 重点句子 (旨在提供句子结构等所需材料)
1. I was about to go back to sleep when suddenly my bedroom became as bright as day.
我刚要回去再睡,突然我的卧室亮如白昼。
[解释]be (just) about to do...when..."正要做......这时(突然)......
[典例]
1) I was just about to go out when the phone rang.我刚要出去这时电话响了。
2) I was just about to leave when he came.我刚要离开,他就来了。
[练习] 汉译英
1)他正要去见老板解释发生的事情,这时老板出现在门口。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2)他刚要按下按钮,这时四个时髦女孩赶上了电梯。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1)He was about to see the boss and explain what had happened when the boss appeared at the door.
2) He was about to press the button when four modern girls reached the lift.

2. It is said that this boy, who had a great gift for languages and persuasion, is the father of the Manchu people.
[解释] It is said that...据说...... 相类似的句型结构: It is proved/ announced/ believed/ expected/stated/ thought /reported that....
[典例]
1) It is said that China is going to launch another spaceship this year.
据说中国会在今年发射令一个宇宙飞船.
2) It has been proved that eating vegetables in childhood helps to protect you against serious illness in later
life.孩童时多吃蔬菜有助于保护你以后免受疾病的困扰已经得到证实。
[练习] 汉译英
1)人们认为乡下的空气要比城里更清新。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2)人们期望《赤壁》下集更受广大观众的欢迎。
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Keys: 1) It is thought that the air in countryside is clearer than that in the city. 2) It is expected that the film chibi(II) can be more popular with a large audience.
二、课文要点
1课文词汇等填空(旨在复习本课文中的单词拼写和主要词语等)
根据课文内容完成下面语法填空,注意单词拼写和词语用法:
  My job is to travel to unusual places and meet interesting people from all over the world. I use 1 (science) instruments in my work and meet with local people and tourists, and I am never 2 ( bore) .As a 3 (火山学家), I collect information about Mount Kilauea. My job is 4 (occasion) dangerous; I don't mind because danger 5 (interest) me and makes me feel alive. As is known, when lava from the volcano flows, many houses will be covered with lava or 6 burnt to the ground. All the lava 7 (pass) slowly down the mountain causes more damage because it buries everything in its path under the molten rock. I once experienced an 8 (火山爆发) . When it broke out, red lava was _9___ (喷)hundreds of metres into the air, and it was an _____10______(absolute) fantastic sight.
  答案:1.scientific 2.bored 3.vocanolist 4.occasionally 5. interests
   6.be 7.passing 8.eruption 9.fountained 10.absolutely
2课文大意概括 (旨在训练用30个单词概括大意的能力)
阅读课文,试着用30来个单词概括课文大意或翻译下面短文。
在文章里,作者,一个为基拉韦厄火山数据库收集信息的火山科学家,谈到他自己的经历,特别是第一次看到火山喷发情景和他对火山的热情。
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

答案:In this passage, the author, a volcanologist whose job is collecting information for a database on Mount Kilauea, talked about his own experiences, especially the first sight of an eruption and his enthusiasm.
3课文佳句背诵与仿写 (旨在培养对难句的理解和运用能力)
1.【原句】Sometimes working outdoors, sometimes in an office, sometimes using scientific equipment and sometimes meeting local people and tourists, I am never bored.有时在室外工作,有时在办公室里,有时工作中要用科学仪器,有时要会见当地的老百姓和旅游人士,我从来不感到厌烦。
[模仿要点] 句子结构:sometimes doing1, sometimes doing2, sometimes doing3, + 主句
【模仿1】有时学唱英文歌曲,有时讨论两国文化之间的差异,有时享受英语话剧,我觉得英语角活动非常有趣。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:Sometimes learning to sing English songs, sometimes discussing the difference between the two cultures and sometimes enjoying English dramas, I found the activities in the English corner much fun.
【模仿2】有时阅读新闻,有时与他人聊天,有时看最新的电影,我把上网作为我最好消磨时间的方式.
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:Sometimes reading news, sometimes chatting with others, and sometimes enjoying the latest films, I make Internet my best time consumer..

2. 【原句】I was about to go back to sleep when suddenly my bedroom became as bright as day.我刚要再睡时,突然我的卧室亮如白昼。
[模仿要点] 句子结构: be about to do ... when...
【模仿1】经过多次徒劳的尝试后我正要放弃时,我的老师来给予我帮助。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:I was about to give up after several attempts in vain when my teacher came to my help.
【模仿2】我们正准备出门时,突然下雨为重的
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:We were about to go out when suddenly it rained heavily.

3. 【原句】I ran out of the house into the back garden where I could see Mount Kilauea in the distance.我赶紧跑出房间,来到后花园,在那儿我能远远地看见经基拉韦厄火山。
[模仿要点] 句子结构:where 引导定语从句
【模仿1】我回到了我度过幸福的童年的故乡,。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:I went back to my hometown where I spent my happy childhood.
【模仿2】放学后,所有的学生去了有很多体育器材运动场以放松自己。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案:After school, all the students went to the playground where there is much sports equipment to relax themselves.

4. 【原句】The other two climbed down into the crater to collect some lava for later study, but this being my first experience,I stayed at the top and watched them.另外两人攀下火山口去收集供日后研究用的岩浆,我是第一次经历这样的事,所以留在山顶上观察他们。
[模仿要点] 句子结构: this being my first experience 作独立主格
【模仿1】两名学生在我面前表现完美,但是由于这是我第一次站在全班同学面前,我颤抖不安。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案: Two students before me performed perfectly, but this being my first time to stand before the whole class, I was trembling and shaking.
【模仿2】其他学生都紧张,但由于这是我第二次,我很轻松,自信。
_______________________________________________________________________________
答案: Other students were all nervous , but this being my second time, I was quite relaxed and confident.
三、单元自测
1完形填空
  阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从21-30各题所给的A、B、C和D项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
词数:195 完成时间:14分钟 难度:*** How Americans treat pets has changed greatly over the past decade or so. No longer do we regard dogs and cats as animals in the backyard that eat our left-over food. Today, 63 percent of cat owners and 42 percent of dog owners 21 their beds with their pets.
Pets are the 22 of a huge commercial industry that tries to 23 not only the basic needs of animals but also the needs of pet owners.
Sixty-three percent of American homes have a pet. Not 24 . cats and dogs are the most 25 pet choices.
Bob Vetere, president of the American Pet Product Manufacturers Association, said the 26 in spending started in the mid- '90s and has continued. "Certainly post 9/11, the world is a 27 place for some people. People are looking for 28 , and that's something that a pet provides," Vetere said.
Another 29 is the Baby Boomer demographic (生育高峰的人口). Vetere points out that "a lot of Baby Boomers have sent their kids off to college; we were once doting (溺爱的) 30 , and now we're becoming doting pet owners'.
21. A. enjoy B. share C. present D. arrange
22. A. choice B. product C. hope D. focus
23. A. meet B. balance C. make D. change
24. A. interestingly B. embarrassingly C. surprisingly D. undoubtedly
25. A. popular B. natural C. appropriate D. various
26. A. balance B. increase C. level D. quality
27. A. noisier B. safer C. quieter D. scarier
28. A. turning B. escape C. comfort D. hope
29. A. result B. problem C. reason D. effect
30. A. friends B. workers C. children D. parents
答案:
过去猫和狗不被当成宠物看待,主人经常把它们养在后园中,给它们吃剩下来的饭菜。而近十年来,人们对待它们的态度变了,它们不仅得到了主人的细心照料,并且已经成了一个新的经济焦点,众多的商家都使尽浑身解数来满足宠物和他们的主人的要求。这一现象其实是有一定的社会原因的,一方面,9.11后,很多人认为这个世界令人恐惧,而他们能够从宠物身上得到安慰,而另一方面,当年婴儿潮时期出生的孩子现在已经成了白发苍苍的老人,他们的孩子远离家里,所以在一定程度上,这些老人饲养宠物可以减轻儿女不在身旁的孤独感。
21. B。 结合选项以及所搭配的名词和文章的内容可推出:过去猫和狗不被当成宠物看待,主人经常把它们养在后园中,给它们吃剩下来的饭菜。而近十年来,人们对待它们的态度变了,相当一部分主人和这些宠物睡在一起。
22. D。 根据此句后面的tries to 23 not only the basic needs of animals but also the needs of pet owners可知,由于宠物的地位提高了,所以相应地产生了许多为宠物服务的工厂。对这些商业企业来说宠物就是他们经营的焦点,要想方设法满足宠物的基本需要和宠物主人的需要。
23. A。 既然产生了一个庞大的商业,那么这些工厂肯定要为满足宠物的基本需要和宠物主人的需要而服务。meet one's need满足某人的需要(求)。
24. C。 现在百分之六十三的美国家庭有宠物。一点也不稀奇的是,猫和狗是人们最喜爱的宠物。
25. A。 文章第一段提到的数据:Today, 63 percent of cat owners and 42 percent of dog owners...可知,在各种宠物中,猫和狗最受人们喜爱,人们饲养得也最多。
26. B。 从前面可知,在过去的十年中,宠物的地位比以往高了,那么,在它们身上的开销也大了。从后面的关键词started in the mid-'90s可知道,在90年代中期用在宠物身上的开销开始增长。
27. D。 根据常识判断,美国9. 11之后,有些人认为世界是不安全的。scarier意为"更易受惊的"。
28. C。 结合选项以及前文可知,人们缺乏安全感(但是又无法逃离这个世界),所以他们试图寻找安慰,而宠物正好能够满足一些人的精神需要。宠物能够给人带来安慰,不能带来转折(turning),也不能带来逃避(escape)和希望(hope)。
29. C。 上面谈到的是宠物受欢迎的一种原因,下面要谈的是另一个原因,所以C项正确。
30. D。 由于子女都去上大学了,家中的父母感到孤独。过去我们是溺爱子女的家长,现在我们成了溺爱宠物的主人。
2. 语法填空
  阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填入一个适当的词或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空,并将答案填写在答题卡标号为31-40的相应位置上。
词数:153 完成时间:8分钟 难度:*** Some people think that all wild animals are dangerous. Actually, very few of them will attack a man if he leaves them 31 . If you met a lion 32 an elephant, suppose you would run away, but even a lion 33 keep away from a man unless it is very hungry. "Lions and tigers only kill and eat men when they 34 (grow) too old and too weak to catch their usual food, such as deer and 35 small animals. If you see a wild elephant, perhaps you will 36 (frighten). Elephants usually run away at once 37 you attack them. Some animals get very frightened ff they only smell a man, some take 38 notice but quietly walk in another direction. Wild animals only attack hunters when they are afraid 39 the hunters mean 40 (harm) their young ones, or when the hunters shoot at them and make them angry.
答案:
31.alone 32.Or 33.will 34.have grown 35.other 36.be frightened 37.Unless 38.no 39.that 40.to harm
31.alone,leave....alone是固定短语,"别管......,别理会......"。
32.or,表选择,"或者"。
33.will,表一种必然的趋势或经常性动作,"会,将会"。
34.have grown,动词的现在完成式,表"当狮子和老虎已处于太老的状态时"。
35.other,表"别的,其他的"。
36.be frightened,be frightened的意思是"害怕"。
37.unless,"如果不.除非"。表假设。
38.no,take no notice的意思是"不注意,不理会"。
39.that,that;引导宾语从句:
40.to harm,mean to do sth.是固定短语,"故意去做......,有意去做......;打算去做......"

3. 阅读理解
  阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
词数:233 完成时间:6分钟 难度:** People in the United States honor their parents with 2 special days: Mother's Day on the second Sunday in May and Father's Day on the 3rd Sunday in June. These days are to show love and respect for parents. They raise their children and educate them to be responsible citizens. They give love and care. These two days offer an opportunity to think about the changing roles of mothers and fathers. More mothers now work outside the home and more fathers must help with child-care.
These two special days are celebrated in many different ways. On Mother's Day, people wear carnations. A red one symbolizes a living mother. A white one shows that the mother is dead. Many people attend religious services to honor parents. It's also a day when people whose parents are dead visit the cemetery, on these days families get together at home as well as in restaurants. They often have outdoor barbecues for Father's Day. These are days of fun and good feelings and memories.
Another tradition is to give cards and gifts. Children make them in school. Many people make their own presents. These are more valued than those bought in stores. It's not the value of the gift that is important, but "the thought that counts ". Greeting card stores, florists, candy makers, bakers, phone companies and other stores do lots of business during these holidays.
41. Which is not a reason for children to show love and respect for parents?
A. Parents bring up children.
B. Parents give love and care to children.
C. Parents educate children to be good persons.
D. Parents pass away before children grow up.
42. What can we learn from the passage?
A. Both festivals are in May.
B. Fewer women worked outside the home in the past.
C. Not all the children respect their parents.
D. Fathers are not as important as mothers at home.
43. What do you know about "carnation" ( Paragraph 2 ) ?
A. It only has two kinds of color.
B. It refers to the special clothes people wear on Mother's Day.
C. It's a kind of flower showing love and best wishes.
D. People can wear them only on the second Sunday in May.
44. On Mother's Day and Father's Day ____________.
A. people usually have family parties
B. everyone goes to the cemetery
C. children always go to parents' home
D. hand-made cards are the most valuable gifts
45. What do you think "florists" (Paragraph 3) do?
A. They sell flowers.
B. They make bread or pastry.
  C. They offer enough room for having family parties.
D. They sell special clothes for Mother's Day and Father's Day.
答案:
41.答案是D.此题是推断题,A、B、C三项均是敬重父母的原因。
42.答案是B.由第一段"More mothers now work outside..."可知。
43.答案是C. carnation即是"康乃馨"。
44.答案是A. .此题是细节题,由第二段"On these days families..."可得知。
45.答案是A. florists"花商",由全文最后一句并列名词及上文可推测该词义。

4. 基础写作
假定你是Rose以前的班主任Lin Lin,你昨天收到Rose的来信。信中Rose向你介绍了她目前的学习情况。她在今年的高考中失利,现在又到另一所学校重读一年,但她学习时精神不能集中,总是感到很累;因为是插班生,她和其他同学没有什么交流,因此感到很孤独。
请你根据她信中的内容写一封回信,对她进行安慰与鼓励,并提出你的建议。
[写作要求]
1.必须使用5个句子介绍全部所给的内容。
2.将5个句子组织成连贯的一篇短文。
3.使用必要的连接词。
4.信的开头和结尾已给出,不计人句子总数。
Dear Rose,
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
Wish you every Success.
Your teacher
Lin Lin
答案:

Dear Rose,
I'm happy to hear from you and know that you set your new goal and have begun your study in another school.
It is natural that you feel lonely in your new class as you did in your old one, but I'm sure you'll get along well with the other classmates in your new class if you find chances to make friends with them, in which way you'll find them just as understanding as your old ones.
The reason why you feel too tired and can't concentrate yourself may be that you don't organize your time well enough and can't get enough sleep. Don't work too late or too hard and you are likely to get less tired. Try to be more confident and you'll succeed.
Wish you every success.
Your teacher,
Lin Lin



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